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Archive for the ‘10 Type on Maps’ Category

The isotherms nestle together,
The isobars tenderly twine…

cupids-weather-map-poem-1907_map

Cupid’s Weather Map

If Gladys had sent me no message,
Or the mail from Palm Beach met mishap,
Though I lacked premonition or presage
Or courage the wires to tap,
I am sure I could learn when she planned her return
From one look at the weather man’s map.

You’ll notice, no matter in what light
These loops and festoons you may view,
Wherever she moves, like a spot-light,
A zone of fair weather moves, too.
The breezes of May will be blowing her way
When our cars and our fingers are blue.

One sunshiny patch, set off clearly
In a country with rain-clouds all black,
To-day travels northward or nearly,
While a blizzard descends in its track.
Can I possibly err if from this I infer
That Gladys is on her way back?

No; the stupid old map of the weather
Tells the news in its tiniest line.
The isotherms nestle together,
The isobars tenderly twine,
While the forecast they print bears so rosy a tint
It well might be Cupid’s – or mine.

Philip Loring Allen

cupids-weather-map-poem-1907

Life, February 28, 1907, p. 49

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To understand map design, and how maps work, it is useful to see how map design concepts play out on a real map.

One of the significant updates to the 2nd edition of Making Maps was the inclusion of a map of the 1986 trans-global flight of the experimental aircraft called Voyager. This map, originally designed and created by David DiBiase and I back in 1987 for David Woodward’s map design course (and in the University of Wisconsin Cartographic Lab), is repeated thirteen times in seven of the chapters, annotated to show how the concepts and ideas in these chapters play out on the map.

The repeatedly annotated Voyager map serves as an example of map design in practice, but also a guide to “reading” a map from the perspective of map design.

Martin Dodge suggested the annotated maps be available together, for instructional purposes. A good idea! So here they are. Each individual map on this page is a 800k PNG file (click for full size).

A PDF file (8.8mb) with all thirteen higher resolution TIFF images is available here.

The Voyager map project was quite a bit of fun to create back in the day. It won a map design award, was published in the book about the Voyager flight, and printed on paper as part of a promotion for the Waukesha County, Wisconsin Airport. I cannot imagine anything much more exciting than that.

••••••••••

The second map in the series prefaces the initial chapter in Making Maps 2nd edition, and poses a series of questions that will be addressed in future chapters (and annotated Voyager maps):

Chapter 2, What’s Your Map For?, sets the context of the map (and of its re-creation for the book) and how such context shapes the design of the map:

Chapter 6, The Big Picture of Map Design, repeats the Voyager map five times, focusing on the key map design concepts covered in the chapter. This is where the map flips orientation south up (a controversial design choice, according to some reviewers: good! Think about why such a choice is controversial, and if it should be [or ask your students to do so]):

South is now up (so the story reads from left to right):


Annotations about map pieces including title, scale, explanatory text, legend, directional indicator, border, sources, credits, and insets & locator maps:

Annotations about visual arrangement including path, visual center, balance, symmetry, sight-lines, and grids:

Annotations about graphical excellence, based on Edward Tufte’s ideas, including complexity, detail, design variation & data variation, context, revision, non-data ink, data-ink ratio, explanatory text, editing, chartjunk & map crap, redundancy, and multivariate data:

Chapter 7, The Inner Workings of Map Design, reveals the Voyager map with no visual differences (a confusing mess of lines and type):

The map with visual differences is then annotated, with regard to key methods for establishing visual differences, including detail, edges, texture, layering, shape, size, closure, proximity, simplicity, direction, familiarity, and color:

Chapter 8, Map Generalization and Classification, annotates the Voyager map in terms of the generalization concepts of selection, dimension change, simplification, smoothing, displacement, and enhancement:

Chapter 9, Map Symbolization, annotates the map in terms of the visual variables: shape, size, color hue, color value, color intensity, and texture:

Chapter 10, Words on Maps, annotates the Voyager map with regards to typographic variables including typeface, type form, type weight, and type size:

I have a few ideas for additional annotated Voyager maps (such as a full color map) which I hope to cobble together in the future. If you have any other ideas for variations that might be useful or interesting, let me know.

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Click map for larger version; full version (7.3 mb PDF) here

The beauty of words on maps is often not evident, embedded, as they are, in an array of other symbols. A “word map” of South America (above), published by the Geographical Press in 1935, consists entirely of hand-lettered words. The map is supposed to show the labeled landforms of South America; this copy was erroneously printed without the landforms. The map is another find from the dusty old Departmental archives here at Ohio Wesleyan.

The South America word map is not that dissimilar from the word map poetry of Howard Horowitz: below, Manhattan:

A few examples of “word maps” or “typographic maps” have recently popped up on the internets.

National Geographic’s What’s in a Surname (below) interactive map of the dominant surnames in different parts of the US (upper Midwest, and Southwest) reveal structure (the form of the US is evident) as well as meaning (variations in ethnicity across the US).

Axis Maps Typographic Map series works in much the same way, but at a different scale and in a bit more complex manner:

Chicago Typographic Map (Axis Maps)

 

Boston Typographic Map (Axis Maps)

The Axis Typographic Maps use typography as line and area map symbols, providing a nuanced exposition of the geography of these places, the grid of Chicago or the meandering roads of Boston. Again, both meaning and structure are generated by words alone.

But back to the old South America map…

The South American map follows the typical “rules” about type placement, worked out in practice throughout the last few hundred years, and now embedded in cartography texts and in automatic text placement algorithms in GIS software. These rules will, in most cases, make the map easier to read and understand. On the excerpts of the South America map below

  • City names are mixed caps/lower case, roman, and horizontal
  • Country names are upper case, horizontal, and spread out to define the areas
  • Natural features are in the more flowing italics form; if referring to a point, they are horizontal, if they refer to linear or area features (rivers, regions) they are curved to fit the feature.

In practice, placement is complicated, as words cross other words, wrap around each other, and (on most maps) vie for space with other map symbols. The South America map has some neat examples of the art of placing words on maps:

The size of the words varies – suggesting large areas, or places of more importance.

Below find a few pages from the new (2nd) edition of Making Maps (2011) on type as a map symbol. These pages show how typography can be used to express both qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the data they stand for on a map. Typographic guidelines on these pages include typeface (font), type size, type weight, and form (including italics, roman, color, case, and spacing).

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 5 (detail 1, close-up)

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Found while cleaning out an old map cabinet: oceans of just about nothing, punctuated by signs of a minimal landscape. Soiled, creased, tears, dusty. Thumb-print and fading pencil marks, from someone who stared at this map a long time ago.

Details from a topographic map of Egypt in 6 sheets, published by The Survey of Egypt in 1910, scale 1:1,000,000.

Click on any map for a larger version of the scan.

•••

The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 5 (detail 1)

•••

The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 1 (detail 1)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 1 (detail 2)

•••

Note the type leaking over the map border (Mediterranean, Lake Borollos, Gharbia)

The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 1 (detail 3 – close-up)

•••

Note the type leaking over the map border (Mediterranean, Lake Borollos, Gharbia)

The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 1 (detail 3)

•••

The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 3 (detail 1 – close-up)

•••

The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 3 (detail 1)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 5 (detail 2)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 6 (detail 1)

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picture-2


picture-3

I was moving some piles of junk in a storage room and came across a 1934 U.S. Public Works Administration book on Mississippi Valley public works projects (Report of the Mississippi Valley Committee of the Public Works Administration, October 1, 1934). The book is full of maps and other information graphics influenced by Otto Neurath, Gerd Arntz, and Marie Reidemeister’s picture language, isotype.

I always thought isotype had a great look to it.  Its context, in Vienna Circle logical positivism, is a bit wonky, and the idea that symbols – if designed carefully enough – could be “universally communicable” across all cultural and social differences, is merely the dream of those born with a peculiar neurology.  Nevertheless, the isotype “look” is cool in a retro sort of way, and it has certainly influenced the current spare design ethos in cartography.

Some annotated examples of the isotype “language” from a 1937 article by Neurath:

isotype_lang1 sotype_lang2 sotype_lang3

The Gerd Arntz Web Archive is a spectacular collection of thousands of isotype symbols designed by Arntz. All seem to be free to use. (symbols are copyrighted by Pictoright – thanks to Jonathan Hunt for pointing this out). The site also has a breif biography of Arntz.

gmdh02_00158_0 gmdh02_00094_0gmdh02_00045

In casting about the internets, I was gladdened to find someone had scanned the isotype classic, Atlas of Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft (1930, 14+mb PDF).  As far as I know the atlas was printed (on sheets) in limited numbers and has never been easy to find.  Sybilla Nikolow discusses the atlas in her article “Society and Economy: An Atlas in Otto Neurath’s Pictorial Statistics from 1930.” (PDF)

A sampling of maps and graphs from the Atlas follows, and a few more useful isotype resources can be found way at the end.

isotype01

isotype02

isotype03

isotype04

isotype05

isotype06

isotype07

isotype08

isotype09

isotype10

isotype11

isotype12

isotype13

isotype14

isotype15

isotype16

isotype17

isotype18

isotype19

isotype20

isotype21

isotype22

isotype23

isotype24

isotype25

isotype26

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A few interesting isotype resources:

The Isotype Institute documents the history of isotype and has much useful information.

A snazzy discussion of isotype done up by mixing isotype and text is Modern Hieroglyphics. (PDF)

Ellen Lupton reviews the history and significance of isotype in her article “Reading Isotype.” (PDF)

isotype

Neurath and the Vienna Method of Picture Statistics (PDF). A chapter out of an e-book called Speaking of Graphics An Essay on Graphicacy in Science, Technology and Business by Paul J. Lewi. Seems like a nice overview of the history of isotype and its characteristics.

The DADA Companion has much information on design and art related to isotype. Search for “isotype” or “Neurath.”

A new book to be published in April of 2009 is called The Transformer: Principles of Making Isotype Charts by Marie Neurath and Robin Kinross.

Austin Kleon’s blog on graphic design has a nice posting on isotype, comics, and information graphics design. Search the blog for other isotype references.

The web magazine Mute has a feature called The Dutch Are Weeping in Four Universal Pictorial Languages At Least that reviews a series of contemporary exhibits that focus on isotype and related ideas. One exhibit called After Neurath has a significant amount of information and links.

The New York Times summarized 2007 US and Coalition member deaths in Iraq in a isotype-esque chart (click for larger version):

iraq_2007_deaths

Stroom De Haag writes (in the online magazine Archined) about Neurath as the “grandfather of open source.”

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alsace_archaeo

arch-detail

alsace_archaeo_leg4

alsace_archaeo_leg3alsace_archaeo_leg2

Prähistorische Karte von Südwestdeutschland und der Schweiz, 1879

(Protohistoric and Prehistoric Discoveries …)

Looking at working maps – manuscripts, field sketches, and provisional maps – reveals a diversity of symbolization and design which are lost in the monoculture of finished, standardized maps.

HistCarto brings together more than 4000 17th-19th century French manuscript maps.  All are working maps, and most are hand drawn.  Most contain signs of assessment:

These “signs of assessment” include textual commentaries or the addition of symbols, which provide some indication of the ways the maps were made or the uses to which they were put in an administrative or military capacity.

Map symbols and topics shown here include prehistoric sites, farm fields, trees and forests, rivers, hunting grounds, geology, terrain, and property parcels.

The site is in French.  Once at the site, click on the Acces a la base link on the right.  Then select Recherche (on the left) and Simple.  I tried to link each of the maps below to its page at the HistCarto site, but you must be logged into the site for the links to work.  Not optimal!  So I removed the links.  To find the maps, just search the site using the map’s title (below each map).

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Detail, farm fields near Neuhof forest (1787):

neuhof

Plan de la forêt du Neuhof

•••

Detail, farm fields near Poppenreuth (1795):

poppenreuth

Mappa Geographica Parochiae Poppenreutensis

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Detail, farm fields near Strasbourg (no date):

fields1

Carte des environs de Strasbourg

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Detail, farm fields near Herlisheim (1760):

gambsheim_1760_2

Projet d’une nouvelle route entre Gambsheim et Drusenheim

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Details, trees,  Château de Karlsruhe (no date):

karlsruhe

Plan du château de Karlsruhe

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Detail, forests near Molsheim (no date):

molsheim1

Plan de Molsheim

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Detail, forests near Mont Sainte Odile (1810):

odile

Les environs du Mont Sainte-Odile

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Detail, forests near Thann (1815):

thann1

Lever à Vue de la Ville de Thann et des Montagnes qui l’environnent

•••

Drachenkopf Forest, detail and full map (no date):

drachenkopf_1

drachenkopf_2

Forêt de Drachenkopf

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Detail, map of Strasburg (1765):

stras_water

Plan de Strasbourg en 1765

•••

Hunting grounds in the vicinity of Strasbourg, reserved for the king and officers (1739):

strasbourg_1

Terrains de chasse aux environs de Strasbourg

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Revision on Geologic Map, Barr Region (no date):

barr

Région de Barr: Carte Géologique

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Detail, hand-drawn map of Euphrates (no date):

euphrates

The river Euphrates with the Cilician Taurus and Northern Syria

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Detail, terrain near Munster (no date):

belfort

Carte des Vosges depuis Belfort jusqu’à Landau

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Detail, terrain on map of mining concessions near Thann and Dauendorf (1705):

thann

Concessions minières dans les environs de Thann et de Dauendorf

•••

Map showing two roads linking Wissembourg and Fischbach and a new road (in yellow) (no date):

wissembourg_2

wissembourg_1

Deux routes reliant Fischbach et Wissembourg

•••

Parcels in a portion of municipal Nordheim (1782):

nordheim_1781

Portion du communal de Nordheim

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map_defs_02

What is a map?

J.H. Andrews compiled 321 definitions of “map” for a 1996 article (“What Was a Map?” Cartographica 33:4, pp. 1-11).

Edit out all the source information and other miscellaneous stuff and you have a bunch of words that can be pumped into a word cloud generator like the wonderful Wordle.

The word cloud visualization does help to make some sense out of the 8106  words in the 321 definitions.  At least we know what we think maps are.

map_defs_04

map_defs_05

Try it yourself. Go to Wordle and cut & paste the cleaned up definitions (below).  There are many graphic options to play with.

•••

321 Definitions of “Map.”  Go here to see the full citations.  Many thanks to J.H. Andrews for compiling all the definitions.

•••

The terrestrial or earthly globe is an artificial representation of the earth and water under that form and figure of roundness which they are supposed to have, describing the situation, and measuring the compass of the whole frame, and describing the situation and measuring the distances of all the parts. As the earth and water are wholly represented upon the globe, so the whole, or any part of either may be described in plano, or upon a plane surface in a map or sea-chart. It was said before that as the whole earth upon the globe, so the whole or any part thereof may be described upon a plane.

A schedule containing a description of the world, &c.

A representation of the whole globe of the earth, or of some particular country upon a plan, or plain superficies.

A representation of the globe of the earth, or of some of its parts, upon a plan or plain superficies.

A description of the earth, or some particular part thereof, projected upon a plain superficies; describing the form of countries, rivers, situation of cities, hills, woods, and other remarks.

The resemblance of the heavens or the earth on a plane superficies.

A description of the earth, or some particular part thereof, projected upon a plain superficies; describing the form of countries, rivers, situation of cities, hills, woods and other things of note.

A representation of the earth or some particular part thereof upon a plain superficies.  A general map is a description of the whole earth, with the several countries, islands, seas, rivers, &c. therein contained, and also the circles of the globe. Particular maps, are either of the four parts of the world; or of particular kingdoms and countries.

A representation of the earth, or some part of it, on a plane superficies.  A general map in geography is a description of the whole earth, with the several countries, islands, seas, rivers, &c. therein contained, and also the circles of the globe. Particular maps, are either of the four parts of the world; or of particular kingdoms and countries.

The problem of composing geographical maps: the situation of an infinite plain, or one to be produced at pleasure, being given, to represent in that the places of the superficies of the earth, according to the rules of perspective. The end of these tables or maps is to the life, and exactly as may be to express the scituation of places in the superficies of the earth; maps of small regions do not require the rules of perspective.

A plain figure, representing the several parts of the surface of the earth, according to the laws of perspective, or it is a projection of the surface of the globe, or part thereof in plano, describing the several countries, islands, seas, rivers, with the situation of cities, woods, hills etc. Universal maps, such as exhibit the whole surface of the earth, or the two hemispheres. Particular maps, are such as exhibit some particular part or region thereof.

A representation of the whole earth, or some part of it, upon a plain superficies.

A description or projection of either the whole world or a part of it upon a plane, in which the situation, figure &c. of a country, both in respect to its own absolute possession of a particular space, or in relation to the bordering nations about it, is described according to the laws of perspective.

A representation of the whole, or a part of the earth, upon a plane superficies, describing the situation and form of countries &c.

A geographical picture on which lands and seas are delineated according to the latitude and longitude.

A geographical picture, or a projection of the globe, or a part thereof, on a plain surface, representing the forms and dimensions of the several countries, rivers, and seas, with the situation of cities, mountains, and other places, according to their respective longitude and latitude.

A geographical picture, or a projection of the globe, or a part thereof, on a plain surface, representing the forms and dimensions of the several countries, rivers, and seas, with the situation of cities, mountains, and other places, according to their respective longitude and latitude.

Ichnographical descriptions of the earth, which we call.

Maps differ from a globe as a picture from a statue.

A plain figure, representing the surface of the earth, or a part thereof, according to the laws of perspective.

A geographical picture, or a projection of the globe or any part thereof on a plain surface, representing the forms and dimensions of the several countries, rivers, and seas, with the situation of cities, mountains, and other places, according to their respective longitude and latitude.

A description of a country by lines drawn on paper, a picture on which lands and seas are delineated according to the rules of geography; the site or description of an estate according to exact admeasurement.

A kind of pictures which should accurately represent all the different parts of our earth.

A plane figure representing the surface of the earth, or a part thereof, in reduced scale.

A plain figure, representing the surface of the earth, or a part thereof, according to the laws of perspective.

A projection of the surface of the globe, or a part thereof; representing the forms and dimensions of the several countries and rivers; with the situations of cities, mountains, and other places.

A geographical picture on which lands and seas are delineated according to the longitude and latitude.

A geographical picture on which lands and seas are delineated according to the longitude and latitude; a description of a country by lines drawn on paper; a view of an estate according to exact measurement.

A plain figure, representing the surface of the earth, or a part thereof, according to the laws of perspective.

A geographical picture upon which lands and seas are delineated according to the longitude and latitude, a chart; the site and description of an estate according to exact admeasurement.

A delineation of lands, seas, countries etc.

Delineations of the earth’s surface on a plane; on which the form and boundaries of the several countries, and the objects most remarkable in each, whether by sea or land, are represented according to the rules of perspective, so as to preserve the remembrance that they are parts of a spherical surface.

A geographical picture, or a projection of the globe, or part thereof, on a plain surface, representing the forms and dimensions of the several countries, rivers, and seas, with the situation of cities, mountains, and other places, according to their respective longitude and latitude.

A lineal representation of countries in their just proportions.

A plane figure, representing the surface of the earth, or a part thereof, according to the laws of perspective.

A delineation or picture of some part of the earth’s surface: and hence of the heavens.

The delineation of the earth’s surface on a plane, by which means the whole or any portion may be easily represented, on a greater or less scale according to circumstances.

A delineation, on a plane surface, of some portion, or the whole, of the celestial globe.

A geographical picture on which lands and seas are delineated according to the longitude and latitude.

A projection, on a plane surface, of the whole or part of the spherical surface of the earth.

A tablet, picture, or delineation of the world, or any part of it; showing the relative situation of places on the earth; of stars in the heavens.

A geographical picture on which lands and seas are delineated according to the longitude and latitude; a description of a country by lines drawn on paper; a view of an estate according to exact admeasurement.

A representation of the whole earth, or of a part of it, on a flat surface.

The representation of the earth, or part of it, on a plane surface.

A delineation of some portion of the surface of the sphere terrestrial or celestial on a plane.

A picture of the world, or of some part of it.

A representation of the earth, or of any part of it, on a flat surface.

A tablet, picture or delineation of the world, or of any part of it; showing the relative situations of places on the earth; of stars in the heavens.

In geography, a representation of the surface of the earth, or of any part of it, drawn on paper or other material, exhibiting the lines of latitude and longitude, and the positions of countries, kingdoms, states, mountains, rivers, etc.

A chart. Picture of the earth.

A delineation on a plane surface of the world in general, or of a city or river, giving its general form or geographical peculiarity.

A delineation of the surface of the earth on paper or other material, in which the lines of latitude and longitude, and the relative positions of countries, kingdoms, states, mountains, rivers, seas etc. are represented.

A delineation of some portion of a sphere, or of the earth, on a plane; a chart.

A delineation of the earth, or part of it.

Represents on a plane greater or smaller parts of the earth’s surface. Astronomy uses similar representations of objects visible in the firmament.

A delineation of the surface of the earth, or any part of it, exhibiting the lines of latitude and the relative positions of countries, mountains, seas, rivers etc.

A delineation of some portion of the surface of the sphere terrestrial or celestial on a plane.

A representation of the surface of a sphere, or a portion of a sphere on a plane. The name however is commonly applied to those plane drawings which represent the form, extent, position and other particulars of the various countries of the earth.

A representation of the whole earth, or of any part of it, on a flat surface.

A rude representation of the school-room, as it would appear to a person looking down from the ceiling or, in other words, a map of the schoolroom.

A showing of the shapes and positions of the features of the earth, not as they rise before the eye in all the beauties of the sun and air, and in their vertical, upright forms, but as they are stretched out horizontally at one’s feet.

A representation in miniature of part of the earth’s surface.

A representation of the surface of the earth or of any part of it, or of the whole or any part of the celestial sphere, usually drawn on paper or other material.  A distinct and precise representation of anything.

A drawing upon a plane surface representing a part or the whole of the earth’s surface or of the heavens, every point of the drawing corresponding to some geographical or celestial position, according to some law, of perspective, etc., which is called the projection, or, better, the map-projection.

A plan or drawing of the whole or part of the earth on a flat surface.

If a person in a balloon passed at a great height over any part of the earth’s surface, and sketched in outline what he saw directly below, his sketch on a flat surface like this page would be called a map.

A napkin. A painted cloth said to be a Punic word. A delineation of some portion of a sphere, or of the earth, on a plane; a chart.

A delineation of a portion of the earth’s surface upn paper or other similar material according to scale, showing the proportionate sizes, shapes and relative positions of places.

A representation of the surface of the earth, or of some portion of it, showing the relative position of the parts represented usually on a flat surface. Also such a representation of the celestial sphere, or of some part of it.

A representation of the earth or part of it.

A flat representation of the earth’s surface.

In one sense a picture expressed in definite and condensed symbols, every one of which is full of meaning.

A map of the simplest kind represents all the points of one surface by corresponding points of another surface in such a manner as to preserve the continuity unbroken, however great may be the distortion.

In a convenient shape, and on a small scale, such a picture of the country represented as will convey a real idea of the actual country as it exists.

A representation of the earth’s surface, or a part of it, its physical and political features, etc., or of the heavens, delineated on a flat surface of paper or other material, each point in the drawing corresponding to a geographical or celestial position according to a definite scale or projection.

A representation of the surface of the earth or any part of it, drawn on paper or other material, exhibiting the lines of latitude and longitude, and the positions of countries, kingdoms, states, mountains, rivers etc..

A delineation on a plane of the whole or of a portion of the surface of the earth.

A representation, as a plane projection, of any region or expanse; a chart; specifically, a delineation of land or land and water, showing the extent and relative position of geographical features and conveying topographical or other information.

Portrayal on a plane of the surface of the earth or some larger or smaller portion of it.

A picture of the earth, or part of it, on a flat surface.

A representation, on a plane and a reduced scale, of part or the whole of the earth’s surface.

Most commonly represents in a conventional manner a portion of the earth’s surface, somewhat as it would be seen by an eye directly above it, but with additions which render it a summary of observations made on the spot.

A delineation of the earth or any part of it.

A picture drawn on a flat piece of paper of a portion of the earth’s surface and giving a similar view of the earth to that presented to an observer in the car of a balloon floating in the air.

A reproduction or picture of some portion of the earth’s surface differing materially from an ordinary picture for two reasons: in a map objects are represented as they would appear if seen from a great height, such as would be obtained by an observer in an aeroplane; everything on a map must either be named or marked with a distinguishing symbol.

Essentially, a representation on paper of a portion of the earth’s surface.

A representation of the whole, or a portion, of the earth’s surface upon a plane.

A representation of a portion of the earth’s surface, or the heavens, on a plane.

A representation, generally on a flat surface, of the face of the earth or a part of it, or the celestial regions.

A delineation on a plane of the surface of the earth or heavens, or a portion thereof.

A plan of a portion of the curved surface of the earth represented on a plane surface.

A pictorial representation of a portion of the earth’s surface laid down on a flat surface.

Simply a model of a portion of the earth’s surface ideal map.

A representation of the whole earth, or of any part of it, on a flat surface.

A representation on a plane surface of a part or the whole of the surface of the earth or of the heavens.

An abstract of the main features of a country, laid before the traveller in advance of his experience of the country itself.

A representation of the whole or part of the earth’s surface drawn on a plane surface.

A representation of the whole or a part of the earth’s surface.

A representation usually on a flat surface of the surface of the earth, or of some portion of it, showing the relative position, according to some given scale and projection, of the parts represented; also such a representation of the celestial sphere, or some part of it.

Plane representation of the earth’s surface or a part of this, indicating physical features, political boundaries etc. Similar representation of heavens, showing position of stars etc.

A delineation on a plane of the surface of the earth or heavens, or a portion thereof.

A representation of the surface of the earth or of any part of it, drawn on paper or other material.

Flat representation of the earth or some part of it, or of the heavens.

A representation on a plane of a part or the whole of the surface of the earth, or the heavens.

A plane representation of a greater or smaller part of the earth’s surface, emphasising, in addition to the positional relations, also space and surface relations, and further geophysical, natural and cultural facts, in such a way that it enables their reading and measurement.

Any delineation of the surface of the earth, or any part of it, drawn on paper or other material.

A representation on a plane surface of a part or the whole of the surface of the earth or of the heavens.

A representation on a plane of a portion of the surface of the earth or the heavens.

Representation on a plane surface of the earth or some part of it.

A representation of the features of one surface on another.

A plan is the shape of any object or group of objects as they would appear if seen from above. Maps are plans on small scales, taking in large areas.

The outcome of man’s desire to give geographical expression to his knowledge or his ideas concerning the characteristics and distribution of the earth’s features.

Representation of the earth or some portion of it on a plane surface.

Representations on a plane surface of some part of the earth.

Plane representation of whole or part of earth’s surface, showing physical features, political boundaries etc..

A representation of a portion of the earth’s surface, or the heavens, upon a plane.

A representation of the surface of the earth or of part of it, on any plane surface; a representation of the celestial sphere.

Flat representation of the earth or some part of it, or of the heavens.

Intended to be a miniature of the country it represents, in so far as a flat surface can imitate one that is actually in relief.

A representation of any region, as the earth’s surface.

Reduced conditional representations of the surface of the whole or parts of earth’s sphere on a plane, obtained by means of a projection and rendering essential features of the geographical characteristic of this surface with all possible fullness and evidence.

A representation of the physical, political, or other features of a geographical area, put down on paper or other flat surfaces according to a definite scale.

A flat representation of the earth’s surface.

Flat representation of the earth or part of it.

Graphic presentation of our knowledge of the earth’s surface and its varied features.

A small-scale, flat-surface representation of some portion of the surface of the earth.

In its primary conception, a conventionalised picture of the earth’s pattern as seen from above, to which lettering is added for identification.

A picture or chart of part of the earth’s surface.

A representation, usually a plane projection, of any region or expanse; a chart; specifically, a delineation of land or land and water, showing the extent and relative position of geographical features, and conveying topographic or other information.

A represenation of spatial phenomena of a certain portion of the earth, projected on a plane; in comparison with a picture it constitutes an abstraction of the reality, represented by means of points, of lines and of superficial markings.

A chart, a flat representation of the earth or a particular region.

A representation in outline of the surface features of the earth, the moon etc., or part of it, usually on a plane surface; a similar plan of the stars in the sky.

A representation on a plane of a part or the whole of the surface of the earth, or the heavens.

Any delineation of the surface of the earth, or of any part of it, drawn on paper or other material.

A flat drawing of the earth’s surface or part of it.

By definition, a representation of all, or a portion of, the earth, drawn to scale and usually on a plane or flat surface.

A graphic document in which location, extent, and direction can be more precisely defined than by the written word.

The purpose of a map is to express graphically the relations of points and features on the earth’s surface to each other.

A complete picture of the countryside it represents, including hills and valleys, railways and roads, rivers and villages, and all the other features of interest.

A representation on a plane surface, at an established scale, of the physical features, natural, artificial or both, of a part or the whole of the earth’s surface, by the use of signs and symbols, and with the method of orientation indicated. Also a similar representation of the heavenly bodies.

Graphic representations of parts of the earth’s surface in miniature, incorporating selected information on a flat surface.

A representation of a portion of the earth’s surface, or the heavens, upon a plane.

A picture of the ground, looked at from above, drawn with painstaking accuracy.

The representation on a flat surface of all or a part of the earth’s surface to show physical, political, or other features, each point on the diagram corresponding to a geographical position according to a definite scale or projection.

A scale drawing of a part of the earth. Pictures of areas of the ground showing its shape, the location and types of roads, railroads, buildings, landmarks, woods, swamps, rivers, lakes and so on; instead of showing the land from the ground level, as you would ordinarily see things, the map gives a view from overhead; maps are picture drawings. They are drawings of the ground and the important things on the ground.

A delineation of the earth’s surface or any part of it.

A one-view drawing showing only the top view.

A flat representation of the earth or some part of it or of the heavens.

A lineal representation on a plane surface of spatial distributions usually on the earth, but sometimes the heavens or a heavenly body. It symbolises sphericity by using projections, distance by using a scale, relief by contours, and employs conventional signs for other features.

A representation of the earth or part of it, or of the heavens.

A representation on a flat surface of all or part of the earth’s surface.

A simplified picture or plan of part of the earth’s surface.

Reduced, generalised, mathematically defined representations of the earth’s surface, showing the distribution, the state and the mutual relations of various natural and social phenomena, chosen and characterised in accordance with the purpose of the map.

Represents the features of a piece of country all to the same scale, correct in their lateral disposition and orientation.

Geographical records and pictures of the way to get from place to place.

A representation of the earth’s surface or a part of it, its physical and political features, etc., or of the heavens, delineated on a flat surface of paper or other material, each point in the drawing corresponding to a geographical or celestial position according to a definite scale or projection.

A flat drawing of the earth or some part of it, showing mountains, rivers, etc.

A representation on a plane surface of the earth’s surface or a portion thereof, or the heavens.

A pilot’s eye view of the ground drawn on paper.

A selective, symbolised, and generalised picture on a much reduced scale of some spatial distribution of a large area, usually the earth’s surface.

A representation of the surface of the earth or any part of it or of the whole or any part of the celestial sphere, usually on paper or other material.

A proportional representation of a particular area of the earth’s surface on a plane, in which certain conventions are used.

A drawing of a large surface. The surface may be of a town, country, the world, the moon or the appearance of the sky.

Representation of the earth’s surface or of the heavens.

The chief difference between a map and a picture is that a map shows the outlines of things as they appear from above.

A conventional representation, normally to scale and usually on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on or in relation to the surface of the earth, or of a heavenly body.

A representation of the earth’s surface on a reduced scale.

A representation usually on a flat medium of all or a portion of the earth or other celestial body, showing the relative size and position of features to some given scale or projection; also, a representation of all or part of the celestial sphere.

The representation of a flat surface of all or part of the earth’s surface, to show physical, political or other features, each point on the diagram corresponding to a geographic position according to a definite scale or projection.

A graphic is a geographic map when the elements of a geographic component are arranged on a plane in the manner of their observed geographic order on the surface of the earth.

A portable, simplified picture of the world or some portion of it.

A topographic transfer, relative to a given part of the earth surface, is a set of signs informing about spatial relations conditions occurring between objects or phenomena connected with the said part of the earth surface. The map of a given part of the earth surface is a topographic transmitter that informs only and solely by means of a disposition on the plane of signs designating objects or phenomena.

A symbolised picture of an area or piece of ground, drawn as accurately as possible, as it would be seen from directly above.

The primary function of a map is to serve as a reduction of all or part of the earth’s surface for the purpose of recording, presenting, or analysing the spatial positions and the interrelationships of phenomena occurring thereon.

A graphic representation, usually on a plane surface and at an established scale, of natural and artificial features on the surface of a part or the whole of the earth or other planetary body. The features are positioned as accurately as possible, usually relative to a coordinate reference system. Also, a graphic representation of a part or the whole of the celestial sphere.

An abstract, abbreviated representation of a part or whole of an area, usually the earth’s surface.

A representation, usually on a plane surface, of a region of the earth or heavens.

Conventionalised representation of spatial phenomena on a plane surface. Unlike photographs maps are selective and may be prepared to show various quantitative and qualititative facts, including boundaries, physical features, patterns, and distribution. Each part of a map corresponds to a geographical position in accordance with a definite scale and projection.

Representation on a plane surface at an established scale of the physical features, natural or artificial, of a part or whole of the earth by means of symbols with the method of orientation, such as north, indicated.

Some form of ‘macroscope’ with a reducing power to scale down extensive regions to a convenient size for visual examination. The first technique in this class of graphic aids is the field sketch or landscape drawing which is completely bound by the horizon and the laws of perspective. The second technique breaks the horizon bondage by adopting a higher viewpoint thus condensing more extensive areas into panoramas or block diagrams. Third, the perspective bond is further broken by the rise of still more distant and imaginary viewpoints arranged in a systematic lattice to give vertical views of all points simultaneously. This produces the map.

An approximate iconic representation, scaled small, of an existent physical thing, all or a portion of the earth’s surface.

A graphic representation or charting of the whole or part of the earth’s surface, the heavens, or one of the heavenly bodies; anything which resembles a map in appearance or function.

A representation to scale of the features of the surface of the earth.

A kind of picture, showing certain geographical aspects of a town, a continent, the oceans, or even the surface of the moon.

A representation of all or part of the earth, drawn to scale, usually on a plane surface.

A representation on a plane surface paper, card, plastic, cloth or some other material of the features of part of the earth’s surface, drawn to some specific scale. It obviously involves certain degrees of generalisation, selective emphasis and conventionalisation, according to the scale and the detail involved.

A representation, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on, or in relation to, the surface of the earth or of a celestial body.

A graphic representation of a planetary surface.

A representation, usually on a plane surface, of all or part of the surface of the earth, celestial sphere, or other area; shows relative size and position according to a given projection, of the physical features represented and such other information as may be applicable to the purpose intended.

Representation usually on a flat surface of the whole or a part of an area; a representation of the celestial sphere or part of it. 2. Something that represents with a clarity suggestive of a map.

Representation on paper etc. of the earth’s surface or part of it, showing physical and political features.

Two-dimensional representation of a landscape.

A drawing of part of the earth’s surface on a small scale.

A representation of the milieu. The space represented by a tangible map normally refers to the three-dimensional field of our experience. The most general terms are probably ‘place and area’ — simply a portion of space. They are quite impersonal, though, and because of the involvement of the cartographer in a map, they leave something to be desired; the word ‘milieu’ best connotes one’s surroundings or environment in addition to its meaning of place, and thus involves the cartographer. A map is a graphic thing made of marks of various kinds.

Traditionally, a map is a space in which marks that have been assigned meanings are placed in positions relative to one another in such a way that not only the marks, but also the positions and the spatial relationships among the elements, have meaning.

A drawing of an area as you would see it from high up above.

A graphic representation on a plane surface of the earth’s surface or part of it, showing its geographical features. These are positioned according to pre-established geodetic control, grids, projections, and scales.

A map is the simplest and most elegant and informative way of presenting data that vary across a surface. It is a two-dimensional model which the human mind recognises and comprehends with pictorial clarity but yet provides quantitative as well as qualititative information.

A symbolised picture of the earth pattern drawn to scale on a horizontal projection, to which lettering usually is added for identification.

A geographical map is a representation of the arrangement of elements on the surface of the earth.

Maps are scales for measuring the property location.

A presentational form of communication. No map marks are carriers of fixed meanings. The marks have location. The marks are opaque rather than transparent. The map has the quality of image and the quality of structure.

A representation of part of the earth’s surface as if seen from above, showing the shape of countries, the position of towns, the height of land, the rivers etc.

A graphic representation, usually on a plane surface and at an established scale, of natural and artificial features on the surface of a part or the whole of the earth or other planetary body; the features are positioned as accurately as possible, usually relative to a coordinate reference system.

Any geographical image of the environment. A cartographer’s map is an external geographical representation of the geographical environment.

A loose definition of the concept of mapping experience, and mapping behaviour, is that it is one of several modes of communication practised by human beings, specifically that concerned with selectively sensed data about objects and events in their spatial-temporal context; the storage and manipulation of such data as cognitive maps and only potentially as documents, and the thoughts, movements, and other behaviour consequent upon the sensing, sorting, arrangement and symbolic transformation of such data.

Diagram representing the lay out of features on the earth’s surface or part of it.

Graphic representation of the physical features, natural, artificial, or both of a part or the whole of the earth’s surface, by means of signs or symbols or photographic imagery, at an established scale, on a specified projection and with the means of orientation indicated.

A spatial representation that is dimensionally systematic in that there is a definable mathematical relationship among the objects shown usually made on a flat surface and that can show only a selection of geographical phenomena that have been somehow generalised, simplified, classified etc..

A diagrammatic representation of the earth’s surface or part of it, showing the geographical distributions, positions, etc., of natural or artificial features such as roads, towns, relief, rainfall, etc.

A representation, especially on a plane surface, of the surface of the earth, or part of it.

A drawn representation of geographical space.

A representation on flat surface of all or part of earth’s surface; similar representation of relative position of stars as seen from earth, or of the surface of other planets.

A flat representation of the earth or some part of it or of the heavens.

Some relatively durable physical object that represents spatial relationships among various phenomena.

A representation of the earth or some part of it on a plane surface.

Formal systems for the communication of spatial information.

Flat representation of the earth, or some part of it, or of the heavens.

A representation, usually on a plane surface, of the earth’s surface or a part of it or of the sky showing the positions of the stars etc.

A representation usually on a plane surface of the earth’s surface or a part of it or of the sky showing the positions of the stars etc..

A picture, diagram or analogue, usually having two dimensions, of part or all of the surface of the earth or other mappable area and a device for transferring selected information about the mapped area to the map user.

Achieves the visually impossible feat of vertical representation at every point, to a uniform scale throughout the map instead of reproducing the actual shape, colour and texture of the features it shows, replaces them with a set of more or less elaborate signs and symbols.

To see such productions as the Pawnee Indian star chart as somehow connected with the history of mapping merely distracts attention from the real issue in early cartography: how and when did mankind reach the highly sophisticated idea of representing landscape as though viewed vertically from every point?

The map image is a structured cartographic representation of selected spatial information, which when placed onto a storage medium becomes a map.

The map image is a structured representation of selected spatial information, which when placed on a storage medium becomes a map.

A drawing or other representation that is usually made on a flat surface and that shows the whole or a part of an area as of the surface of the earth or some other planet or of the moon and indicates the nature and relative position and size according to a chosen scale or projection of selected features or details as countries, cities, bodies of water, mountains, deserts.

Briefly, a form of graphic communication designed to convey information about the environment.

A symbolic graphic representation of a planetary body, or portion thereof.

A representation, on a flat surface, of a part or the whole of the earth’s surface, the heavens, or a heavenly body.

A spatial analogue: its purpose is the understanding, portrayal, and communication of information that varies in space.

Symbolic representations of the real world.

A graphic portrayal of the whole or part of the earth.

A representation in outline of the surface features of the earth, the moon, etc., or of part of it, usually on a plane surface: a similar plan of the stars in the sky: a representation, scheme, or epitome of the disposition or state of anything.

A graphic means of communicating useful information.

A drawing of the earth’s surface or of part of it, usually showing countries, cities, rivers, seas, lakes and mountains.

Graphic representation of spatial relationships and spatial forms.

The graphic representation of all or a portion of the earth’s surface or other celestial body, by means of signs and symbols or photographic imagery, at some given scale or projection.

A graphic representation of the geographic features of the earth’s surface on a plane surface.

A device for storing and communicating information about the physical and social phenomena that are distributed over the earth’s surface.

The domain of cartography is to be limited by the planimetrically correct representation of the two spatial dimensions retaining the various symbolism on that plane for the displaying of a third dimension.

Any graphic, conventional representation of spatial information, drawn for a purpose.

A representation usually on a plane surface of the earth’s surface or a part of it, or of the sky showing the position of the stars etc.

A representation of the earth’s surface or a part of it, or of the heavens, delineated on a flat sheet of paper or other material.

A two-dimensional representation of a geographical area.

A ‘symbolic description’ using an array of symbols to yield a true or false characterisation of a certain aspect of the world. To be a map, the conventions of representation used by the map maker must be known to the map reader.

Efforts to convey, on a flat surface, the representation of space and what, in that space, is particularly meaningful.

A representation on a flat surface usually of paper of the features of part of the earth’s surface, drawn at a specific scale.

A representation on a flat surface of part of the earth’s surface, the celestial sphere etc.

Drawing or representation on paper etc. of the earth’s surface or part of it, showing countries, oceans, rivers, mountains etc.; representation of the sky showing positions of the stars etc.

A means of representing the spatial arrangements of objects, conditions, processes, and events in the terrestrial, celestial or imagined worlds by means of a wide range of techniques on or with a great variety of materials for any number of reasons and structured according to any of several geometries.

A representation usually on plane surface, cf globe of part of earth’s surface, showing physical and political features etc., or of the heavens, showing positions of stars etc.

A representation, usually on a plane surface, of a region of the earth showing geographical, political, or other features

A drawing of the earth’s surface or part of it, often showing things such as rivers, mountains, countries, towns.

Representation on paper etc. of earth’s surface, or part of it, showing physical and political features etc.; similar represention of heavens showing position of stars etc.

The task of the cartographer is to represent the topographical natural and artificial features of the earth’s surface at a greatly reduced scale in a convenient form, usually on flat sheets of paper.

As we know them today, maps combine geographical outlines and features with toponymy.  Modern definitions of a map, referring as they do to scale, projection, coordinates or clearly indicated methods of orientation, are anachronistic for our period. We therefore propose instead the following minimum requirements for an incunable map: It must attempt to convey, in graphic form, information about the real world or some part of it. It must be concerned — however inaccurately or schematically — with direction and the relative distance of one place or feature from others.

Graphic representations that facilitate a spatial understanding of things, concepts, conditions, processes, or events in the human world.

Permanent graphic images epitomising the spatial distribution of objects and events.

A drawing or other representation, usually on a flat surface, of all or part of the earth’s surface, ordinarily showing countries, bodies of water, cities, mountains etc. A similar representation of part of the sky, showing the relative positions of the stars, planets etc.

As a scale model, the map projects a spherical surface onto a plane and represents real features with graphic symbols.

Holistic representations of spatial reality. The map is initially and primarily an intellectual abstraction of spatial reality but this must be subsequently communicated, i.e. modelled and coded, in a form that exploits the human and/or digital spatial processing capablities.

A holistic representation and intellectual abstraction of geographic reality intended to be communicated for a purpose or purposes, transforming relevant geographical data into an end-product which is visual, digital or tactile.

Representation in outline form of the surface features of the earth or of the distribution of some phenomenon upon it.

A representation on paper, etc. of the earth’s surface or part of it, showing countries, rivers, mountains, oceans, roads, etc.

A two-dimensional graphic image which shows the location of things in space, that is, in relationship to the earth’s surface. It is distinguished from other kinds of representation in two dimensions — such as pictorial images and diagrams — in two principal ways. First, its perspective is an orthogonal projection of the earth’s three dimensional surface on to a plane. And second, it does not describe or depict individual things, but represents them by signs which place them in classes or categories. In addition, because the earth is nearly spherical, any map of more than a very small area must involve some distortion, and therefore employ some systematic means of representing the spheroidal or spherical surface, on a plane.  Those maps which do not show any graticule or grid are still based on sources of information derived from maps on a coordinate system.

Maps structure information graphically, in two dimensions.

A graphic representation of the milieu, containing both pictorial or iconic and non-pictorial elements.

A representation of the surface of the earth or any part of it.

A systematic representation of all or part of the earth on a flat surface plane.

A graphic representation of the milieu.

A representation of a portion of the earth’s surface or the heavens, upon a plane.

A representation of the surface of the earth or any part of it.

A drawing of the earth’s surface or part of it, often showing things such as rivers, mountains, countries and towns.

A graphic representation of all or part of the earth’s surface; sometimes this definition may be much more restrictive, taking in such elements as scale and orientation.

A mirror, a graphic representation, of some aspect of the real world ‘the usual perception of the nature of maps’.

A visual representation of a part or all of the surface of the earth.

Is intended to represent the spatial relationship between locations on the globe in more or less schematic form.

Representations of features on the earth’s surface drawn to scale.

The flat representation of part of the earth’s surface, showing physical and political features.

An abstraction of reality used for analysing, storing and communicating information about the locations, attributes and interrelationships of physical and social phenomena that are distributed over the earth’s surface.

A bird’s eye view of a portion of the earth’s surface.

A representation or abstraction of geographical reality and a tool for presenting geographical information in a way that is visual, digital or tactile.

A communication tool that transmits information on a spatial themes with cartographic signs, whose arrangements, according to scale and projection of the representation base, correspond with the spatial structure of the represented objects of reality.

A representation or abstraction of geographical reality: a tool for presenting geographical information in a way that is visual, digital or tactile.

A holistic representation and intellectual abstraction of geographic reality intended to be communicated for a purpose or purposes, transferring relevant geograhical data into an end product which is visual, digital, or tactile.

A medium for the comprehension, recording and communication of spatial relationships and forms; these are often, but not always, of geographical phenomena.

A generalised picture of the surface of the earth or other celestial body viewed vertically from above and at a much reduced scale.

A representation on a flat surface of all or part of the earth’s surface or all or part of the stars.

A drawing of an area as it would appear if you saw it from above. A map shows the main features of an area and sometimes has special information on it.

The representation of part of the earth’s surface as seen from above, showing the shape of countries , the position of towns, the height of land, the rivers, etc.

A spatial representation of the environment. By ‘representation’ we mean something that stands for the environment, that portrays it, that is both a likeness and a simplified model.

An image proclaiming its objective neutrality.

Flat drawings of the world seen from above.

A report of a survey in the form of a drawing.

A plan drawn accurately to a defined scale.

A representation of the surface of the earth or any part of it.

A representation of the earth’s surface, or part of it, showing its physical or human features delineated on a flat surface of paper or other materials according to some set of rules.

A symbolised image of geographic reality, representing selected features or characteristics, resulting from the creative efforts of cartographers, and designed for use when spatial relationships are of special relevance.

A conventionalised image of geographical reality, representing selected features or characteristics, resulting from the creative effort of its author’s execution of choices, and thus designed for use when spatial relationships are of primary relevance.

A system capable of representing, perhaps after operations defined within the system, the direction and distance between any two arbitrary represented places.

A drawing or plan, in outline, of any part of the surface of the earth, various features are shown usually roads, rivers, seas, towns etc. a similar type of drawing showing e.g. the surface of the moon, the position of the stars in the sky etc.

A map represents the world, or portions of it, as a set of features divided into a small number of recurring types rivers, towns, national borders, etc., each indicated by a conventional symbol that are related to one another by contiguity and distance.

A map is a category 1 object representing category 4 geographic space. Category 1 = small manipulable objects (e.g. a book). Category 4 = spaces which cannot be perceived as units such as extended geographic space.

The map image is a structured cartographic representation of selected spatial information. The image becomes a map when represented physically (e.g. classical topographic map, or braille), virtually (e.g. on a computer screen or linguistically (e.g. verbal or written spatial instructions).

A representation of the surface of the earth or any part of it.

Relatively durable graphic expressions mimicking, at every point, a schematised view more or less from overhead.

A dissociated transcript of a public image of space and spatial relationships.

Graphic representations of social space.

A graphic image that can be interpreted geographically.

A matrix of ambiguous culturally defined symbols.

A graphical representation usually on a flat surface of objects and phenomena in their spatial relationships on the surface of the earth or any other celestial body.

A graphic image that can be interpreted spatially.

A representation of spatial relations.

Two- or three-dimensional devices, allowing to give a spatial organization to phenomena, events, processes, things, etc in order to understand them.

A tool which helps us order or navigate some aspect of the outside world.

A drawing that shows where various things are located in relation to one another.

This graphic representation of the geographical setting is what we call a map.

A representation of the earth, or part of it.

A representation, usually on a plane surface, of all or part of the earth or some other body showing a group of features in terms of their relative size and position.

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Map-making has often adapted technologies designed for purposes other than making maps.

I recall Scitex hardware as the state-of-the-art in large format color computer mapping in the early 1980s when I was first learning cartography. Cartography applications were developed when Scitex, its origins in designing and printing textiles, noticed “the similarity between printing large fabric surfaces and coloring topographic surfaces.” (PDF source).

Step back a few generations and we find the then ubiquitous typewriter adapted to making maps by DIY cartographers.

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Edward Tufte’s The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (1998, 2nd edition 2001) is a classic book, arguably his best, and certainly a key text in the field of information graphics (which encompasses cartography). I know some cartography courses use the book as a text.

I recall being inspired by the book as a neophyte cartographer back in the late 1990s.

The book looked great: its design communicated the importance of design (when most other cartography and information graphics books were clunky and poorly designed). The tone was serious and high-minded: I was designing information graphics. And I think I absorbed Tufte’s minimalist design philosophy, although cartographic design, at least the way I learned it, was largely minimalist, with no allowance for flourish, fake 3D embellishment, or other chartjunk (or “map-crap” as I call it in the Making Maps book).

While I won’t impugn the importance of lofty inspiration, I did wonder what kind of practical guidelines I could derive from Tufte’s book. You know, specific stuff that would help me to design and make better maps. I sat down one day and made a list of Tufteisms from the book: that list is below.

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