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Archive for the ‘11 Color on Maps’ Category

 

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The Atlas de Cuba by Gerardo Canet and Erwin Raisz, featured in a recent posting here, is accompanied by a large color map entitled Mapa de los Paisajes de Cuba (Map of the Landscapes of Cuba). The map is a hybrid of Raisz’s landform map style supplemented with diverse human landscape components. Canet and Raisz explain their methodology:

The accompanying map of Cuba is a new experiment in cartography. Color suggests land types: cultivated fields, pastures, mountains, swamps, valleys, etc. The symbols were selected after a series of flights over the Island and on analysis of numerous color photographs taken from the air It is expected that in this way the map will better reflect reality; more closely resembling on air view of the Island than the conventional maps we now have.

This approach is part of a tradition of natural or real color mapping combining terrain (in particular, shaded relief) with air imagery or map symbolization inspired by air imagery, an obvious outcome of aerial mapping in the early part of the 20th century. An article by Tom Patterson and Nathaniel Vaughn Kelso entitled Hal Shelton Revisited: Designing and Producing Natural-Color Maps with Satellite Land Cover Data (2004) delineates the author’s development of the Natural Earth data (shaded terrain + satellite land use data) in the context of earlier, related work by Hal Shelton, Eduard Imhof, Heinrich Berann, Richard Edes Harrison and Tibor Toth. It seems that Raisz was also an innovator in this realm of air-imagery inspired map design.

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See also, at this blog, Raisz’s History of American Cartography TimelinesMap Symbols: Landforms & Terrain, and Raisz’s currently available landform maps at www.raiszmaps.com.

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Mapa de los Paisajes de Cuba, 1949 (36.6mb)

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Map details:

002_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map 003_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map 004_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map 005_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map 006_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map 007_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map 008_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map 009_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map 010_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map 011_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map 012_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map 013_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map 014_Cuba_Canet_Raisz_Map

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This Atlas is more than an attempt to describe Cuba. Our aim is not only to present the setting in which the drama of Cuban life is played but to show how this life itself changes its own setting, creating new problems and new adjustments to them.

This dynamic element is usually absent from the impersonal atlases produced by governments, societies and publishing houses, which merely give a graphic report of a given moment of time. Our objective is to give a living picture of Cuban geography as far as possible in 64 pages. Our approach is as follows: 1. What are the facts?, 2. What are the essential problems?, 3. What will be their effects in the future and what may be done about them? For instance, Cuba, by reason of its close proximity to the United States become its chief source of tropical products, especially sugar. Thus the Cuban economy has become dependent on the fluctuating sugar demand, whereas a diversification of crops and industries would be advisable.

We have presented the results of our labor in graphical form. An old Chinese proverb says: “A picture says more than a thousand words.” Moreover by visual representation the most complicated problems may be brought within the understanding of the layman. Everyone should know the geography of his own country, and in the case of Cuba this need is imperative, since few countries have such clear-cut dependence on location, climate and soil Cuba’s internal problems of adjustment and interdependence with the rest of the world demand a high degree of understanding from its citizens.

- from Introduction

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In addition to many dozens of unique landform maps, Erwin Raisz produced three atlases in his lifetime, including the Atlas of Global Geography (Global Press Corp., 1944), the Atlas de Cuba (Harvard University Press, 1949) and the Atlas of Florida (University of Florida Press, 1964). Copies of the Global and Florida atlases are relatively easy to find (used or in libraries); this is not the case with the Cuba atlas, which seems to have had a relatively low print run. A series of maps, diagrams and illustrations from the Cuba atlas are included below.

The Atlas de Cuba strongly reflects Raisz’s aesthetic, combining creative illustration with his bold and cozy aesthetic of map design. Part of the appeal of Raisz’s work is its humane feel, reflecting the manual mapping tools used to create his maps. Raisz’s maps and illustrations clearly reveal the hand of a human creator.

A large format map, included in the back of the Atlas de Cuba, will be the subject of a subsequent post.

See also, at this blog, Raisz’s History of American Cartography TimelinesMap Symbols: Landforms & Terrain, and Raisz’s currently available landform maps at www.raiszmaps.com.

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El Mundo Alrededor de Cuba | The World Around Cuba (Excerpt & entire p. 5)

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Cuba Colonial | Colonial Cuba (excerpt, p. 9)

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Ciclones | Cyclones (excerpt & entire p. 14)

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Geologia | Geology (excerpt & entire pp. 18-19)

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Geomorfologia | Geomorphology (excerpt & entire pp. 20-21)

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Pesca | Fish (excerpt, p. 25)

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Vegetacion | Vegetation (excerpt & entire pp. 26-27)

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Poblacion | Population (excerpt, p. 29)

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Composition Social | Social Composition (excerpt, p. 35)

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Tourismo | Tourism (excerpt & entire pp. 38-39)

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Educacion | Education (excerpt, p. 40)

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Agricultura | Agriculture (excerpts & entire pp. 42-43)

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Azucar | Sugar (excerpt, p. 44)

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Minerales | Minerals (excerpt & entire pp. 46-47)

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Tabaco | Tobacco (excerpt, p. 49)

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Frutas | Fruit (excerpt, p. 51)

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Atlas de Cuba

Garardo Canet & Erwin Raisz

Harvard University Press

1949

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Fujimi_jusanshu_yochi_zenzu_c2 Fujimi_jusanshu_yochi_zenzu_c1

Fujimi_jusanshu_yochi_zenzu_c_legFujimi_jusanshu_yochi_zenzu_c0

Fujimi jūsanshū yochi zenzu
(Map of the thirteen provinces from which Mt. Fuji is visible)
1843  |  Edo : Yamashiroya Sahei
Source

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Kaiho_Kai_no_Kuni_ezu_c2 Kaiho_Kai_no_Kuni_ezu_c1

Kaiho_Kai_no_Kuni_ezu_c_legKaiho_Kai_no_Kuni_ezu_c0

Kaihō Kai no Kuni ezu
(Pocket map of Kai Province)
1842  |  Kōfu, Kai Province : Murataya Kōtarō
Source

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saka_yori_Tokai_ni_itaru_kairo_no_zu_c2 saka_yori_Tokai_ni_itaru_kairo_no_zu_c1 saka_yori_Tokai_ni_itaru_kairo_no_zu_c0

 Ōsaka yori Tōkai ni itaru kairo no zu
(Tōkaidō and the sea route from Ōsaka to Edo)
1855  |  Manuscript
Source

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Shiga_kenka_Shigagun_Fujiomura_chinai_aza_hira_Kaigaya_Maegaki_jissokuzu_c2 Shiga_kenka_Shigagun_Fujiomura_chinai_aza_hira_Kaigaya_Maegaki_jissokuzu_c1

Shiga_kenka_Shigagun_Fujiomura_chinai_aza_hira_Kaigaya_Maegaki_jissokuzu_c_legShiga_kenka_Shigagun_Fujiomura_chinai_aza_hira_Kaigaya_Maegaki_jissokuzu_c0

Shiga kenka Shiga-gun Fujio-mura chinai aza Ōhira Kaigaya Maegaki jissokuzu
(Measured map of Ōhira Kaigaya Maegaki, in Fujio Village, Shiga County, Shiga Prefecture – Gunpowder Safety Map)
1870  |  Manuscript
Source

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University of British Columbia
Collection: Japanese Maps of the Tokugawa Era
Source & Description

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Catalonian Health Administration Areas (1936-39)

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Foreign interests allied against the Spanish Republic (1937)

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Aragon Front of the war: Republican gains shown as broken barbed wire, prisoners taken shown as silhouettes of men marching under guard, and captured armaments shown as images of specific weapons with numbers captured (1936).

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The Way to Peace! Nine maps of German campaigns from August 1914 to spring 1918.

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The Impact of Our Submarines: Reduction in shipping, south-east Britain, due to German Submarines (1917)

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Imperial War Museum @ VADS

Spanish Civil War Poster Collection

Posters of Conflict Collection

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Thanks to A London Salmagundi for original link

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Among the most expressive of map making tools are pencils, pens and other analog devices. The certainty of the topographic map contrasts with the precursory aesthetic of the hand drawn annotations.

This final posting in a series contains hand-sketched glacial geomorphology annotations on topographic maps by Dr. George Crowl (1910-87) who taught geology at Ohio Wesleyan University from 1947-1975. The topographic maps are from the USGS 15′ series, covering the area around Delaware, Ohio. Crowl was known for his field trips for students in Ohio and surrounding states. These manuscript maps, in the archives of the Geology & Geography Department at Ohio Wesleyan, were likely created for a generalized map of central Ohio glacial landforms for use on his field trips.

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Excerpts from Westerville, OH USGS 15′ quadrangle

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Among the most expressive of map making tools are pencils, pens and other analog devices. The certainty of the topographic map contrasts with the precursory aesthetic of the hand drawn annotations.

This and three subsequent postings contain a series of hand-sketched glacial geomorphology annotations on topographic maps by Dr. George Crowl (1910-87) who taught geology at Ohio Wesleyan University from 1947-1975. The topographic maps are from the USGS 15′ series, covering the area around Delaware, Ohio. Crowl was known for his field trips for students in Ohio and surrounding states. These manuscript maps, in the archives of the Geology & Geography Department at Ohio Wesleyan, were likely created for a generalized map of central Ohio glacial landforms for use on his field trips.

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Excerpts from Delaware, OH USGS 15′ quadrangle

delaware_n_close1 delaware_n_close2 delaware_n_close3 delaware_s_150 delaware_s_close1 delaware_s_close2

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marion_1_close_1

Among the most expressive of map making tools are pencils, pens and other analog devices. The certainty of the topographic map contrasts with the precursory aesthetic of the hand drawn annotations.

This posting contains a series of hand-sketched glacial geomorphology annotations on topographic maps by Dr. George Crowl (1910-87) who taught geology at Ohio Wesleyan University from 1947-1975. The topographic maps are from the USGS 15′ series, covering the area around Delaware, Ohio. Crowl was known for his field trips for students in Ohio and surrounding states. These manuscript maps, in the archives of the Geology & Geography Department at Ohio Wesleyan, were likely created for a generalized map of central Ohio glacial landforms for use on his field trips.

Excerpts from Marion, OH USGS 15′ quadrangle

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marion_1

marion_2_close_1

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marion_3_close_1

 

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dublin_close2

Among the most expressive of map making tools are pencils, pens and other analog devices. The certainty of the topographic map contrasts with the precursory aesthetic of the hand drawn annotations.

This posting contains a series of hand-sketched glacial geomorphology annotations on topographic maps by Dr. George Crowl (1910-87) who taught geology at Ohio Wesleyan University from 1947-1975. The topographic maps are from the USGS 15′ series, covering the area around Delaware, Ohio. Crowl was known for his field trips for students in Ohio and surrounding states. These manuscript maps, in the archives of the Geology & Geography Department at Ohio Wesleyan, were likely created for a generalized map of central Ohio glacial landforms for use on his field trips.

Excerpts from Richwood, OH USGS 15′ quadrangle

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dublin

richwood_1

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richwood_3

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 5 (detail 1, close-up)

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Found while cleaning out an old map cabinet: oceans of just about nothing, punctuated by signs of a minimal landscape. Soiled, creased, tears, dusty. Thumb-print and fading pencil marks, from someone who stared at this map a long time ago.

Details from a topographic map of Egypt in 6 sheets, published by The Survey of Egypt in 1910, scale 1:1,000,000.

Click on any map for a larger version of the scan.

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 5 (detail 1)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 1 (detail 1)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 1 (detail 2)

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Note the type leaking over the map border (Mediterranean, Lake Borollos, Gharbia)

The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 1 (detail 3 – close-up)

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Note the type leaking over the map border (Mediterranean, Lake Borollos, Gharbia)

The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 1 (detail 3)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 3 (detail 1 – close-up)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 3 (detail 1)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 5 (detail 2)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 6 (detail 1)

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I was moving some piles of junk in a storage room and came across a 1934 U.S. Public Works Administration book on Mississippi Valley public works projects (Report of the Mississippi Valley Committee of the Public Works Administration, October 1, 1934). The book is full of maps and other information graphics influenced by Otto Neurath, Gerd Arntz, and Marie Reidemeister’s picture language, isotype.

I always thought isotype had a great look to it.  Its context, in Vienna Circle logical positivism, is a bit wonky, and the idea that symbols – if designed carefully enough – could be “universally communicable” across all cultural and social differences, is merely the dream of those born with a peculiar neurology.  Nevertheless, the isotype “look” is cool in a retro sort of way, and it has certainly influenced the current spare design ethos in cartography.

Some annotated examples of the isotype “language” from a 1937 article by Neurath:

isotype_lang1 sotype_lang2 sotype_lang3

The Gerd Arntz Web Archive is a spectacular collection of thousands of isotype symbols designed by Arntz. All seem to be free to use. (symbols are copyrighted by Pictoright – thanks to Jonathan Hunt for pointing this out). The site also has a breif biography of Arntz.

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In casting about the internets, I was gladdened to find someone had scanned the isotype classic, Atlas of Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft (1930, 14+mb PDF).  As far as I know the atlas was printed (on sheets) in limited numbers and has never been easy to find.  Sybilla Nikolow discusses the atlas in her article “Society and Economy: An Atlas in Otto Neurath’s Pictorial Statistics from 1930.” (PDF)

A sampling of maps and graphs from the Atlas follows, and a few more useful isotype resources can be found way at the end.

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isotype02

isotype03

isotype04

isotype05

isotype06

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isotype14

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A few interesting isotype resources:

The Isotype Institute documents the history of isotype and has much useful information.

A snazzy discussion of isotype done up by mixing isotype and text is Modern Hieroglyphics. (PDF)

Ellen Lupton reviews the history and significance of isotype in her article “Reading Isotype.” (PDF)

isotype

Neurath and the Vienna Method of Picture Statistics (PDF). A chapter out of an e-book called Speaking of Graphics An Essay on Graphicacy in Science, Technology and Business by Paul J. Lewi. Seems like a nice overview of the history of isotype and its characteristics.

The DADA Companion has much information on design and art related to isotype. Search for “isotype” or “Neurath.”

A new book to be published in April of 2009 is called The Transformer: Principles of Making Isotype Charts by Marie Neurath and Robin Kinross.

Austin Kleon’s blog on graphic design has a nice posting on isotype, comics, and information graphics design. Search the blog for other isotype references.

The web magazine Mute has a feature called The Dutch Are Weeping in Four Universal Pictorial Languages At Least that reviews a series of contemporary exhibits that focus on isotype and related ideas. One exhibit called After Neurath has a significant amount of information and links.

The New York Times summarized 2007 US and Coalition member deaths in Iraq in a isotype-esque chart (click for larger version):

iraq_2007_deaths

Stroom De Haag writes (in the online magazine Archined) about Neurath as the “grandfather of open source.”

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