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Archive for the ‘11 Color on Maps’ Category

spanish_health_areas_1936

Catalonian Health Administration Areas (1936-39)

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spain_foreign_interests_1937

Foreign interests allied against the Spanish Republic (1937)

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spain_aragon_front_1936

Aragon Front of the war: Republican gains shown as broken barbed wire, prisoners taken shown as silhouettes of men marching under guard, and captured armaments shown as images of specific weapons with numbers captured (1936).

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german_campaigns_1914-8

The Way to Peace! Nine maps of German campaigns from August 1914 to spring 1918.

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german_impact_british_shipping_1917

The Impact of Our Submarines: Reduction in shipping, south-east Britain, due to German Submarines (1917)

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Imperial War Museum @ VADS

Spanish Civil War Poster Collection

Posters of Conflict Collection

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Thanks to A London Salmagundi for original link

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Westerville_2_1

Among the most expressive of map making tools are pencils, pens and other analog devices. The certainty of the topographic map contrasts with the precursory aesthetic of the hand drawn annotations.

This final posting in a series contains hand-sketched glacial geomorphology annotations on topographic maps by Dr. George Crowl (1910-87) who taught geology at Ohio Wesleyan University from 1947-1975. The topographic maps are from the USGS 15′ series, covering the area around Delaware, Ohio. Crowl was known for his field trips for students in Ohio and surrounding states. These manuscript maps, in the archives of the Geology & Geography Department at Ohio Wesleyan, were likely created for a generalized map of central Ohio glacial landforms for use on his field trips.

glacial_legend

Excerpts from Westerville, OH USGS 15′ quadrangle

Westerville_2_2

Westerville_2_3

Westerville_2

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delaware_n_150

Among the most expressive of map making tools are pencils, pens and other analog devices. The certainty of the topographic map contrasts with the precursory aesthetic of the hand drawn annotations.

This and three subsequent postings contain a series of hand-sketched glacial geomorphology annotations on topographic maps by Dr. George Crowl (1910-87) who taught geology at Ohio Wesleyan University from 1947-1975. The topographic maps are from the USGS 15′ series, covering the area around Delaware, Ohio. Crowl was known for his field trips for students in Ohio and surrounding states. These manuscript maps, in the archives of the Geology & Geography Department at Ohio Wesleyan, were likely created for a generalized map of central Ohio glacial landforms for use on his field trips.

glacial_legend

Excerpts from Delaware, OH USGS 15′ quadrangle

delaware_n_close1 delaware_n_close2 delaware_n_close3 delaware_s_150 delaware_s_close1 delaware_s_close2

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marion_1_close_1

Among the most expressive of map making tools are pencils, pens and other analog devices. The certainty of the topographic map contrasts with the precursory aesthetic of the hand drawn annotations.

This posting contains a series of hand-sketched glacial geomorphology annotations on topographic maps by Dr. George Crowl (1910-87) who taught geology at Ohio Wesleyan University from 1947-1975. The topographic maps are from the USGS 15′ series, covering the area around Delaware, Ohio. Crowl was known for his field trips for students in Ohio and surrounding states. These manuscript maps, in the archives of the Geology & Geography Department at Ohio Wesleyan, were likely created for a generalized map of central Ohio glacial landforms for use on his field trips.

Excerpts from Marion, OH USGS 15′ quadrangle

marion_1_close_2

marion_1

marion_2_close_1

marion_2_close_2

marion_2

marion_3_close_1

 

Read Full Post »

dublin_close2

Among the most expressive of map making tools are pencils, pens and other analog devices. The certainty of the topographic map contrasts with the precursory aesthetic of the hand drawn annotations.

This posting contains a series of hand-sketched glacial geomorphology annotations on topographic maps by Dr. George Crowl (1910-87) who taught geology at Ohio Wesleyan University from 1947-1975. The topographic maps are from the USGS 15′ series, covering the area around Delaware, Ohio. Crowl was known for his field trips for students in Ohio and surrounding states. These manuscript maps, in the archives of the Geology & Geography Department at Ohio Wesleyan, were likely created for a generalized map of central Ohio glacial landforms for use on his field trips.

Excerpts from Richwood, OH USGS 15′ quadrangle

dublin_close1

dublin

richwood_1

richwood_2

richwood_3

richwood_4

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 5 (detail 1, close-up)

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Found while cleaning out an old map cabinet: oceans of just about nothing, punctuated by signs of a minimal landscape. Soiled, creased, tears, dusty. Thumb-print and fading pencil marks, from someone who stared at this map a long time ago.

Details from a topographic map of Egypt in 6 sheets, published by The Survey of Egypt in 1910, scale 1:1,000,000.

Click on any map for a larger version of the scan.

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 5 (detail 1)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 1 (detail 1)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 1 (detail 2)

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Note the type leaking over the map border (Mediterranean, Lake Borollos, Gharbia)

The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 1 (detail 3 – close-up)

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Note the type leaking over the map border (Mediterranean, Lake Borollos, Gharbia)

The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 1 (detail 3)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 3 (detail 1 – close-up)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 3 (detail 1)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 5 (detail 2)

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The Survey of Egypt, 1910, 1:1,000,000, Sheet 6 (detail 1)

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picture-2


picture-3

I was moving some piles of junk in a storage room and came across a 1934 U.S. Public Works Administration book on Mississippi Valley public works projects (Report of the Mississippi Valley Committee of the Public Works Administration, October 1, 1934). The book is full of maps and other information graphics influenced by Otto Neurath, Gerd Arntz, and Marie Reidemeister’s picture language, isotype.

I always thought isotype had a great look to it.  Its context, in Vienna Circle logical positivism, is a bit wonky, and the idea that symbols – if designed carefully enough – could be “universally communicable” across all cultural and social differences, is merely the dream of those born with a peculiar neurology.  Nevertheless, the isotype “look” is cool in a retro sort of way, and it has certainly influenced the current spare design ethos in cartography.

Some annotated examples of the isotype “language” from a 1937 article by Neurath:

isotype_lang1 sotype_lang2 sotype_lang3

The Gerd Arntz Web Archive is a spectacular collection of thousands of isotype symbols designed by Arntz. All seem to be free to use. (symbols are copyrighted by Pictoright – thanks to Jonathan Hunt for pointing this out). The site also has a breif biography of Arntz.

gmdh02_00158_0 gmdh02_00094_0gmdh02_00045

In casting about the internets, I was gladdened to find someone had scanned the isotype classic, Atlas of Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft (1930, 14+mb PDF).  As far as I know the atlas was printed (on sheets) in limited numbers and has never been easy to find.  Sybilla Nikolow discusses the atlas in her article “Society and Economy: An Atlas in Otto Neurath’s Pictorial Statistics from 1930.” (PDF)

A sampling of maps and graphs from the Atlas follows, and a few more useful isotype resources can be found way at the end.

isotype01

isotype02

isotype03

isotype04

isotype05

isotype06

isotype07

isotype08

isotype09

isotype10

isotype11

isotype12

isotype13

isotype14

isotype15

isotype16

isotype17

isotype18

isotype19

isotype20

isotype21

isotype22

isotype23

isotype24

isotype25

isotype26

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A few interesting isotype resources:

The Isotype Institute documents the history of isotype and has much useful information.

A snazzy discussion of isotype done up by mixing isotype and text is Modern Hieroglyphics. (PDF)

Ellen Lupton reviews the history and significance of isotype in her article “Reading Isotype.” (PDF)

isotype

Neurath and the Vienna Method of Picture Statistics (PDF). A chapter out of an e-book called Speaking of Graphics An Essay on Graphicacy in Science, Technology and Business by Paul J. Lewi. Seems like a nice overview of the history of isotype and its characteristics.

The DADA Companion has much information on design and art related to isotype. Search for “isotype” or “Neurath.”

A new book to be published in April of 2009 is called The Transformer: Principles of Making Isotype Charts by Marie Neurath and Robin Kinross.

Austin Kleon’s blog on graphic design has a nice posting on isotype, comics, and information graphics design. Search the blog for other isotype references.

The web magazine Mute has a feature called The Dutch Are Weeping in Four Universal Pictorial Languages At Least that reviews a series of contemporary exhibits that focus on isotype and related ideas. One exhibit called After Neurath has a significant amount of information and links.

The New York Times summarized 2007 US and Coalition member deaths in Iraq in a isotype-esque chart (click for larger version):

iraq_2007_deaths

Stroom De Haag writes (in the online magazine Archined) about Neurath as the “grandfather of open source.”

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alsace_archaeo

arch-detail

alsace_archaeo_leg4

alsace_archaeo_leg3alsace_archaeo_leg2

Prähistorische Karte von Südwestdeutschland und der Schweiz, 1879

(Protohistoric and Prehistoric Discoveries …)

Looking at working maps – manuscripts, field sketches, and provisional maps – reveals a diversity of symbolization and design which are lost in the monoculture of finished, standardized maps.

HistCarto brings together more than 4000 17th-19th century French manuscript maps.  All are working maps, and most are hand drawn.  Most contain signs of assessment:

These “signs of assessment” include textual commentaries or the addition of symbols, which provide some indication of the ways the maps were made or the uses to which they were put in an administrative or military capacity.

Map symbols and topics shown here include prehistoric sites, farm fields, trees and forests, rivers, hunting grounds, geology, terrain, and property parcels.

The site is in French.  Once at the site, click on the Acces a la base link on the right.  Then select Recherche (on the left) and Simple.  I tried to link each of the maps below to its page at the HistCarto site, but you must be logged into the site for the links to work.  Not optimal!  So I removed the links.  To find the maps, just search the site using the map’s title (below each map).

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Detail, farm fields near Neuhof forest (1787):

neuhof

Plan de la forêt du Neuhof

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Detail, farm fields near Poppenreuth (1795):

poppenreuth

Mappa Geographica Parochiae Poppenreutensis

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Detail, farm fields near Strasbourg (no date):

fields1

Carte des environs de Strasbourg

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Detail, farm fields near Herlisheim (1760):

gambsheim_1760_2

Projet d’une nouvelle route entre Gambsheim et Drusenheim

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Details, trees,  Château de Karlsruhe (no date):

karlsruhe

Plan du château de Karlsruhe

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Detail, forests near Molsheim (no date):

molsheim1

Plan de Molsheim

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Detail, forests near Mont Sainte Odile (1810):

odile

Les environs du Mont Sainte-Odile

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Detail, forests near Thann (1815):

thann1

Lever à Vue de la Ville de Thann et des Montagnes qui l’environnent

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Drachenkopf Forest, detail and full map (no date):

drachenkopf_1

drachenkopf_2

Forêt de Drachenkopf

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Detail, map of Strasburg (1765):

stras_water

Plan de Strasbourg en 1765

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Hunting grounds in the vicinity of Strasbourg, reserved for the king and officers (1739):

strasbourg_1

Terrains de chasse aux environs de Strasbourg

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Revision on Geologic Map, Barr Region (no date):

barr

Région de Barr: Carte Géologique

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Detail, hand-drawn map of Euphrates (no date):

euphrates

The river Euphrates with the Cilician Taurus and Northern Syria

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Detail, terrain near Munster (no date):

belfort

Carte des Vosges depuis Belfort jusqu’à Landau

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Detail, terrain on map of mining concessions near Thann and Dauendorf (1705):

thann

Concessions minières dans les environs de Thann et de Dauendorf

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Map showing two roads linking Wissembourg and Fischbach and a new road (in yellow) (no date):

wissembourg_2

wissembourg_1

Deux routes reliant Fischbach et Wissembourg

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Parcels in a portion of municipal Nordheim (1782):

nordheim_1781

Portion du communal de Nordheim

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color-sloane-montz.jpg

Selecting effective colors for your maps is a challenge. In Making Maps I review basic color issues, including how we see and create colors, as well as the complexity of color interactions and some basic color guidelines.

A myriad of color resources for mapping exist. A few of the more useful are below.

ColorBrewer: Cindy Brewer and Mark Harrower’s ColorBrewer is a terrific and easy-to-use web-based tool for choosing appropriate color schemes. While the focus is on colors for choropleth maps, the color schemes are appropriate for other map types and information graphics. Color recommendations are displayed on a map (upon which roads, city symbols, and boundaries can be viewed). Icons indicate if the selected color scheme works well for the color blind, if photocopied, or on a computer projector, LCD, or CRT computer screen. Color schemes are specified in five different color models (CMYK, RGB, HEX, LAB, and AV3), making colors easy to transfer to mapping or graphic design software. Color recommendations are based on Brewer’s extensive color research. Requires Flash 5 or later.

Color Oracle: Up to 12% of the population is colorblind. A common form of colorblindness results in red and green looking the same. It’s a problem, then, if you create a map where red and green distinguish different phenomena. Bernhard Jenny and Nathaniel Vaughn Kelso’s Color Oracle is a free software application that simulates three types of color blindness on your computer screen. With your map on screen, start the software and toggle between different kinds of colorblindness to see if your colors work for people with that type of colorblindness. Simple and useful. Mac, Windows, and Linux versions.

(more…)

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