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Archive for the ‘Map History’ Category

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“Plan shewing principle characters of work used in mapping.”

A map of nowhere showing everything.

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Without and with color.

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Terrain symbols.

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“Plan shewing proposed new street.”

Maps are propositions, right?

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Trees and terrain.

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Geological mapping.

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George G. André

The Draughtsman’s Handbook of Plan and Map Drawing
Including Instructions for the Preparation of Engineering, Architectural, and Mechanical Drawings.

London, New York, E. & F. N. Spon, 1891

Entire book available from Google Books

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The isotherms nestle together,
The isobars tenderly twine…

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Cupid’s Weather Map

If Gladys had sent me no message,
Or the mail from Palm Beach met mishap,
Though I lacked premonition or presage
Or courage the wires to tap,
I am sure I could learn when she planned her return
From one look at the weather man’s map.

You’ll notice, no matter in what light
These loops and festoons you may view,
Wherever she moves, like a spot-light,
A zone of fair weather moves, too.
The breezes of May will be blowing her way
When our cars and our fingers are blue.

One sunshiny patch, set off clearly
In a country with rain-clouds all black,
To-day travels northward or nearly,
While a blizzard descends in its track.
Can I possibly err if from this I infer
That Gladys is on her way back?

No; the stupid old map of the weather
Tells the news in its tiniest line.
The isotherms nestle together,
The isobars tenderly twine,
While the forecast they print bears so rosy a tint
It well might be Cupid’s – or mine.

Philip Loring Allen

cupids-weather-map-poem-1907

Life, February 28, 1907, p. 49

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Scouts, snipers, poison gas, gas masks, trench warfare, rifle ranges, gun positions… Maps and war ca 1917…

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And a terrific type at that.

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Map Reading and the Training of the Intelligence Section, i.e., Scouts, Snipers and Observers are a group of subjects which every officer should personally take interest in.

Not only because they are, as subjects, most interesting, but because they are of the most vital importance when in actual warfare.

To be unable to take a map of a strange sector of country, and thoroughly understand what every line and sign means, is to be helpless in the face of the enemy.

Consequently, I would advise every officer, N.C.O and man to improve his knowledge on map reading and its component parts, as active service in war will call on them every day for a thorough understanding of this subject.

LIEUT. COL. R. B. HAMILTON
Late O.C. Queen’s Own Rifles, 1917

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Orienteering with maps.

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Orienteering with maps.

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In Plate No. 10-A, we have a sample page of a field book after the traverse has been made and all the desired notes are completed ready to plot on arriving at headquarters or camp.

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Trench raid mapping.

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Trench map showing snipers and observation posts.

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Indirect firing at the longer ranges requires a proper fixed rifle stand, something on the lines of the stand shown in plate No. 25.

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Gun position.

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Map showing gun ranges and compass bearings.

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C. D. A. Barber

Map Reading and Intelligence Training.

Cleveland, Edward McKay, 1917

Book available at Google Books

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Map symbols for river and river related features on Latvian topographic maps of the 1920s and earlier. From the book

Apzimejumi Merniecibas un Kulturtechniskiem Planiem

(Legends from Surveying and Cultural-Technical Plans)

Ministry of Agriculture

Riga, Latvia, 1928.

Original plate with translation to English below:


p = parkland

n = marshland

v = heath

zp = fens

s = sand / desert

sp = moss bog

grb = gravel pit

ak = stone pit

kp = peat bog

akl = quarry

sb = sand pit

mb = clay pit

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Map symbols for vegetation and land use features on Latvian topographic maps of the 1920s and earlier. From the book

Apzimejumi Merniecibas un Kulturtechniskiem Planiem

(Legends from Surveying and Cultural-Technical Plans)

Ministry of Agriculture

Riga, Latvia, 1928.

Original plates with translation to English below:

o = orchard

a = kitchen garden

b = arable land

ub = pond on arable land

d = meadow

e = pasture

eas = overgrown marshy meadow

ds = marshy meadow

md = burned forest

mc = cleared forest

mlp = deciduous forest

meg = spruce forest

mpr = pine forest

mj = mixed forest

moz = oak forest

megs = wet spruce forest

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Map symbols for river and river related features on Latvian topographic maps of the 1920s and earlier. From the book

Apzimejumi Merniecibas un Kulturtechniskiem Planiem

(Legends from Surveying and Cultural-Technical Plans)

Ministry of Agriculture

Riga, Latvia, 1928.

Original plate with translation to English below:

from top to bottom:

Fjords: Small and for General Traffic

Wharf and Tow-path

Lake extension – divided

Waterfall

Lake

Rapids

Ditch

Surface and underwater rock

Canal

Whirlpool

Lighthouse

River overflow

Shallows

Flow direction

Ravines and Streams

Pool/Reservoir

Mill Dam

Underground water pipe

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Map symbols for bridges and river related features on Latvian topographic maps of the 1920s and earlier. From the book

Apzimejumi Merniecibas un Kulturtechniskiem Planiem

(Legends from Surveying and Cultural-Technical Plans)

Ministry of Agriculture

Riga, Latvia, 1928.

Original plate with translation to English below:

Bridges:

Iron

Stone

Wood

Pontoon

Raft

Toll Bridges:

Iron

Stone

Wood

Floating Bridge

Locks:

Stone

Wood

Anchored Raft

Boat Raft

Oared Raft

Roped raft

Boundary in the middle of the river

Boundary at the edge of the drainage ditch

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Map symbols for roads and road related features on Latvian topographic maps of the 1920s and earlier. From the book

Apzimejumi Merniecibas un Kulturtechniskiem Planiem

(Legends from Surveying and Cultural-Technical Plans)

Ministry of Agriculture

Riga, Latvia, 1928.

Original plate with translation to English below:

Public Roads:

1) a, b – carriageway edge

2) carriageway:
c – stone or macadamized, d – wood, e – gravel, f – unbuilt

3) g – culverts

4) h – stone bridge

5) i – rail bridge

6) k – road shoulder

7) l – ditches

8) m – greenery / vegetation

 a – entrenchment

 b – embankment

 c – slope to one side

 d – marsh dams

 e – ditches

Winter road

Trail

Private roads

1) a, b – outer edge

2) carrageway:
c – unbuilt, d – stone or macadamized, e – wood, f – gravel;

3) g – culverts

4) h – wooden bridge

5) i – ditch

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A scarce booklet of map symbols that appears in only one library (Berlin State Library) according to the global library catalog WorldCat. I will post more symbols from this booklet in the near future, as well as a PDF of the entire booklet.

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Francois de Dainville, in his Le Language des Geographes (1964, p. 162), compiled map symbols for various water crossings from historical European maps (1543-1777).

The symbols include boats (Bac, above), fords (Gué, below)…

…and bridges (Pont, below).

The entire set of symbols in one image:

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When I compiled a previous post entitled “A Discourse on Map Pins and Pinnage,” largely based on Willard C. Brinton’s Graphic Methods for Presenting Facts (1914) I rather forgot that Brinton had another tome, published in 1939, entitled Graphic Presentation.

Among the pages of this latter book can be found a few items worthy of note: J. Edgar Hoover pinning a map of FBI personnel (above), and another image of a map being pinned in the wild (most popular automobile colors, by U.S. state, 1939):

Also, a fine selection of map pins, updated for the demands of map pinners in 1939:

A few other stray map pin items have also come to my attention.

An advertisement in The American City (11, 1914) suggesting pinned maps EVERY city should construct:

Or one from System: The Magazine of Business (33, 1918):

Or a bit of advice on using pinned “progress maps” in oil field work (Underground Conditions in Oil Fields, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1920):

In Select Notes: A Commentary on the International Lessons for 1893 the Rev. Peloubet recalls the use of map pins for Bible study in the novel Tom Brown at Oxford:

Run out of map pins? Your local dealer is all out due to war-time demands? Popular Mechanics (March 1945) has instructions for DIY map pins:

Enough on map pins already.

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