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Archive for the ‘Map History’ Category

Scouts, snipers, poison gas, gas masks, trench warfare, rifle ranges, gun positions… Maps and war ca 1917…

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And a terrific type at that.

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Map Reading and the Training of the Intelligence Section, i.e., Scouts, Snipers and Observers are a group of subjects which every officer should personally take interest in.

Not only because they are, as subjects, most interesting, but because they are of the most vital importance when in actual warfare.

To be unable to take a map of a strange sector of country, and thoroughly understand what every line and sign means, is to be helpless in the face of the enemy.

Consequently, I would advise every officer, N.C.O and man to improve his knowledge on map reading and its component parts, as active service in war will call on them every day for a thorough understanding of this subject.

LIEUT. COL. R. B. HAMILTON
Late O.C. Queen’s Own Rifles, 1917

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Orienteering with maps.

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Orienteering with maps.

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In Plate No. 10-A, we have a sample page of a field book after the traverse has been made and all the desired notes are completed ready to plot on arriving at headquarters or camp.

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Trench raid mapping.

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Trench map showing snipers and observation posts.

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Indirect firing at the longer ranges requires a proper fixed rifle stand, something on the lines of the stand shown in plate No. 25.

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Gun position.

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Map showing gun ranges and compass bearings.

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C. D. A. Barber

Map Reading and Intelligence Training.

Cleveland, Edward McKay, 1917

Book available at Google Books

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Map symbols for river and river related features on Latvian topographic maps of the 1920s and earlier. From the book

Apzimejumi Merniecibas un Kulturtechniskiem Planiem

(Legends from Surveying and Cultural-Technical Plans)

Ministry of Agriculture

Riga, Latvia, 1928.

Original plate with translation to English below:


p = parkland

n = marshland

v = heath

zp = fens

s = sand / desert

sp = moss bog

grb = gravel pit

ak = stone pit

kp = peat bog

akl = quarry

sb = sand pit

mb = clay pit

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Map symbols for vegetation and land use features on Latvian topographic maps of the 1920s and earlier. From the book

Apzimejumi Merniecibas un Kulturtechniskiem Planiem

(Legends from Surveying and Cultural-Technical Plans)

Ministry of Agriculture

Riga, Latvia, 1928.

Original plates with translation to English below:

o = orchard

a = kitchen garden

b = arable land

ub = pond on arable land

d = meadow

e = pasture

eas = overgrown marshy meadow

ds = marshy meadow

md = burned forest

mc = cleared forest

mlp = deciduous forest

meg = spruce forest

mpr = pine forest

mj = mixed forest

moz = oak forest

megs = wet spruce forest

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Map symbols for river and river related features on Latvian topographic maps of the 1920s and earlier. From the book

Apzimejumi Merniecibas un Kulturtechniskiem Planiem

(Legends from Surveying and Cultural-Technical Plans)

Ministry of Agriculture

Riga, Latvia, 1928.

Original plate with translation to English below:

from top to bottom:

Fjords: Small and for General Traffic

Wharf and Tow-path

Lake extension – divided

Waterfall

Lake

Rapids

Ditch

Surface and underwater rock

Canal

Whirlpool

Lighthouse

River overflow

Shallows

Flow direction

Ravines and Streams

Pool/Reservoir

Mill Dam

Underground water pipe

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Map symbols for bridges and river related features on Latvian topographic maps of the 1920s and earlier. From the book

Apzimejumi Merniecibas un Kulturtechniskiem Planiem

(Legends from Surveying and Cultural-Technical Plans)

Ministry of Agriculture

Riga, Latvia, 1928.

Original plate with translation to English below:

Bridges:

Iron

Stone

Wood

Pontoon

Raft

Toll Bridges:

Iron

Stone

Wood

Floating Bridge

Locks:

Stone

Wood

Anchored Raft

Boat Raft

Oared Raft

Roped raft

Boundary in the middle of the river

Boundary at the edge of the drainage ditch

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Map symbols for roads and road related features on Latvian topographic maps of the 1920s and earlier. From the book

Apzimejumi Merniecibas un Kulturtechniskiem Planiem

(Legends from Surveying and Cultural-Technical Plans)

Ministry of Agriculture

Riga, Latvia, 1928.

Original plate with translation to English below:

Public Roads:

1) a, b – carriageway edge

2) carriageway:
c – stone or macadamized, d – wood, e – gravel, f – unbuilt

3) g – culverts

4) h – stone bridge

5) i – rail bridge

6) k – road shoulder

7) l – ditches

8) m – greenery / vegetation

 a – entrenchment

 b – embankment

 c – slope to one side

 d – marsh dams

 e – ditches

Winter road

Trail

Private roads

1) a, b – outer edge

2) carrageway:
c – unbuilt, d – stone or macadamized, e – wood, f – gravel;

3) g – culverts

4) h – wooden bridge

5) i – ditch

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A scarce booklet of map symbols that appears in only one library (Berlin State Library) according to the global library catalog WorldCat. I will post more symbols from this booklet in the near future, as well as a PDF of the entire booklet.

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Francois de Dainville, in his Le Language des Geographes (1964, p. 162), compiled map symbols for various water crossings from historical European maps (1543-1777).

The symbols include boats (Bac, above), fords (Gué, below)…

…and bridges (Pont, below).

The entire set of symbols in one image:

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