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Archive for the ‘Map History’ Category

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Examples of map symbols used to show trees and forests on old Russian maps (1700s & 1800s) are documented in Izobrazhenie Lesa Na Kartakh by Liudmila Andreevna Shaposhnikova.  The title is roughly translated to “How Forests are Depicted on Maps.” The book was published in Moskva, former USSR, in 1957.

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1/22/09: Tree symbols from these maps inspired a new role-playing map by Chgowiz – very cool!  Click on the close-up below to get the entire map:

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4/8/09: Tree symbols from these old Russian maps have also been incorporated in the soon to be released Ortelius map illustration software for Macintosh:

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A set of salt and pepper shakers, one each for the 48 contiguous U.S. states.

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Photographs from the Jigsaw Puzzles Based on Maps page of PuzzleHistory.com.

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Denis Wood & John Fels’ new book The Natures of Maps is available now from the University of Chicago Press and many other sources. The lowest price I can find at this time is $29 (at Buy.com). Denis is, of course, co-author of the Making Maps book.

The book is big – almost a foot square – with color maps on almost every page.  The book had a harrowing path to publication.  Originally under contract to ESRI Press, the book was in final galleys (ready to print but for a handful of edits) when ESRI Press decided to cancel it and a dozen other books in process.  Given the expense of producing the book (and the cost of reproduction rights to the illustrations) this seemed to be a peculiar business decision.  The University of Chicago Press subsequently acquired the book, more or less ready to print.

Here’s an “editorial” blurb I wrote for the book:

If Wood & Fels’ The Power of Maps showed that maps were powerful, The Natures of Maps reveals the source of that power. The Natures of Maps is about a simple but profound idea: maps are propositions, maps are arguments. The book confronts nature on maps – nature as threatened, nature as threatening, nature as grandeur, cornucopia, possessable, as a system, mystery, and park – with intense slow readings of exemplary historical and contemporary maps, which populate this full color, beautifully illustrated and designed book.

The careful interrogation of maps reveals that far from passively reflecting nature, they instead make sustained, carefully crafted, and precise arguments about nature. The Natures of Maps shows how maps establish nature, and how we establish maps. The power of maps extends not only from their ability to express the complexities of the natural world in an efficient and engaging manner, but in their ability to mask that they are an argument, a proposal about what they show.

The implications of the arguments in The Natures of Maps are significant, empowering map users and makers. The Natures of Maps shows that neither map users or map creators are passive, merely accepting or purveying reality; they are, instead, actively engaged in a vital process of shaping our understanding of nature in all its complexity. Map users have a critical responsibility, the power to accept, reject, or counter-argue with the maps they encounter. Map creators have creative responsibility, the power to build and finesse their arguments, marshalling data and design for broader goals of understanding and communicating truths about the world. Rethinking how maps work in terms of propositional logic, with its 2000-year history and vast methodological and theoretical foundation, promises to be one of the most profound advances in cartographic theory in decades, and The Natures of Maps shows the way in a captivating manner.

Considering maps from the perspective of propositional logic provides a rigorous foundation for a theory of the map that transcends disciplinary boundaries. Scholars from the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences will find Wood and Fels’ The Natures of Maps intellectually sound, methodologically useful, and deeply engaging. But the beauty of The Natures of Maps is that it is not merely an academic book. Wood and Fels’ The Natures of Maps is a powerful, beautifully illustrated and engaged argument about maps as arguments that will appeal to map lovers, map makers, map users, and map scholars.

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What is a map?

J.H. Andrews compiled 321 definitions of “map” for a 1996 article (“What Was a Map?” Cartographica 33:4, pp. 1-11).

Edit out all the source information and other miscellaneous stuff and you have a bunch of words that can be pumped into a word cloud generator like the wonderful Wordle.

The word cloud visualization does help to make some sense out of the 8106  words in the 321 definitions.  At least we know what we think maps are.

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Try it yourself. Go to Wordle and cut & paste the cleaned up definitions (below).  There are many graphic options to play with.

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321 Definitions of “Map.”  Go here to see the full citations.  Many thanks to J.H. Andrews for compiling all the definitions.

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The terrestrial or earthly globe is an artificial representation of the earth and water under that form and figure of roundness which they are supposed to have, describing the situation, and measuring the compass of the whole frame, and describing the situation and measuring the distances of all the parts. As the earth and water are wholly represented upon the globe, so the whole, or any part of either may be described in plano, or upon a plane surface in a map or sea-chart. It was said before that as the whole earth upon the globe, so the whole or any part thereof may be described upon a plane.

A schedule containing a description of the world, &c.

A representation of the whole globe of the earth, or of some particular country upon a plan, or plain superficies.

A representation of the globe of the earth, or of some of its parts, upon a plan or plain superficies.

A description of the earth, or some particular part thereof, projected upon a plain superficies; describing the form of countries, rivers, situation of cities, hills, woods, and other remarks.

The resemblance of the heavens or the earth on a plane superficies.

A description of the earth, or some particular part thereof, projected upon a plain superficies; describing the form of countries, rivers, situation of cities, hills, woods and other things of note.

A representation of the earth or some particular part thereof upon a plain superficies.  A general map is a description of the whole earth, with the several countries, islands, seas, rivers, &c. therein contained, and also the circles of the globe. Particular maps, are either of the four parts of the world; or of particular kingdoms and countries.

A representation of the earth, or some part of it, on a plane superficies.  A general map in geography is a description of the whole earth, with the several countries, islands, seas, rivers, &c. therein contained, and also the circles of the globe. Particular maps, are either of the four parts of the world; or of particular kingdoms and countries.

The problem of composing geographical maps: the situation of an infinite plain, or one to be produced at pleasure, being given, to represent in that the places of the superficies of the earth, according to the rules of perspective. The end of these tables or maps is to the life, and exactly as may be to express the scituation of places in the superficies of the earth; maps of small regions do not require the rules of perspective.

A plain figure, representing the several parts of the surface of the earth, according to the laws of perspective, or it is a projection of the surface of the globe, or part thereof in plano, describing the several countries, islands, seas, rivers, with the situation of cities, woods, hills etc. Universal maps, such as exhibit the whole surface of the earth, or the two hemispheres. Particular maps, are such as exhibit some particular part or region thereof.

A representation of the whole earth, or some part of it, upon a plain superficies.

A description or projection of either the whole world or a part of it upon a plane, in which the situation, figure &c. of a country, both in respect to its own absolute possession of a particular space, or in relation to the bordering nations about it, is described according to the laws of perspective.

A representation of the whole, or a part of the earth, upon a plane superficies, describing the situation and form of countries &c.

A geographical picture on which lands and seas are delineated according to the latitude and longitude.

A geographical picture, or a projection of the globe, or a part thereof, on a plain surface, representing the forms and dimensions of the several countries, rivers, and seas, with the situation of cities, mountains, and other places, according to their respective longitude and latitude.

A geographical picture, or a projection of the globe, or a part thereof, on a plain surface, representing the forms and dimensions of the several countries, rivers, and seas, with the situation of cities, mountains, and other places, according to their respective longitude and latitude.

Ichnographical descriptions of the earth, which we call.

Maps differ from a globe as a picture from a statue.

A plain figure, representing the surface of the earth, or a part thereof, according to the laws of perspective.

A geographical picture, or a projection of the globe or any part thereof on a plain surface, representing the forms and dimensions of the several countries, rivers, and seas, with the situation of cities, mountains, and other places, according to their respective longitude and latitude.

A description of a country by lines drawn on paper, a picture on which lands and seas are delineated according to the rules of geography; the site or description of an estate according to exact admeasurement.

A kind of pictures which should accurately represent all the different parts of our earth.

A plane figure representing the surface of the earth, or a part thereof, in reduced scale.

A plain figure, representing the surface of the earth, or a part thereof, according to the laws of perspective.

A projection of the surface of the globe, or a part thereof; representing the forms and dimensions of the several countries and rivers; with the situations of cities, mountains, and other places.

A geographical picture on which lands and seas are delineated according to the longitude and latitude.

A geographical picture on which lands and seas are delineated according to the longitude and latitude; a description of a country by lines drawn on paper; a view of an estate according to exact measurement.

A plain figure, representing the surface of the earth, or a part thereof, according to the laws of perspective.

A geographical picture upon which lands and seas are delineated according to the longitude and latitude, a chart; the site and description of an estate according to exact admeasurement.

A delineation of lands, seas, countries etc.

Delineations of the earth’s surface on a plane; on which the form and boundaries of the several countries, and the objects most remarkable in each, whether by sea or land, are represented according to the rules of perspective, so as to preserve the remembrance that they are parts of a spherical surface.

A geographical picture, or a projection of the globe, or part thereof, on a plain surface, representing the forms and dimensions of the several countries, rivers, and seas, with the situation of cities, mountains, and other places, according to their respective longitude and latitude.

A lineal representation of countries in their just proportions.

A plane figure, representing the surface of the earth, or a part thereof, according to the laws of perspective.

A delineation or picture of some part of the earth’s surface: and hence of the heavens.

The delineation of the earth’s surface on a plane, by which means the whole or any portion may be easily represented, on a greater or less scale according to circumstances.

A delineation, on a plane surface, of some portion, or the whole, of the celestial globe.

A geographical picture on which lands and seas are delineated according to the longitude and latitude.

A projection, on a plane surface, of the whole or part of the spherical surface of the earth.

A tablet, picture, or delineation of the world, or any part of it; showing the relative situation of places on the earth; of stars in the heavens.

A geographical picture on which lands and seas are delineated according to the longitude and latitude; a description of a country by lines drawn on paper; a view of an estate according to exact admeasurement.

A representation of the whole earth, or of a part of it, on a flat surface.

The representation of the earth, or part of it, on a plane surface.

A delineation of some portion of the surface of the sphere terrestrial or celestial on a plane.

A picture of the world, or of some part of it.

A representation of the earth, or of any part of it, on a flat surface.

A tablet, picture or delineation of the world, or of any part of it; showing the relative situations of places on the earth; of stars in the heavens.

In geography, a representation of the surface of the earth, or of any part of it, drawn on paper or other material, exhibiting the lines of latitude and longitude, and the positions of countries, kingdoms, states, mountains, rivers, etc.

A chart. Picture of the earth.

A delineation on a plane surface of the world in general, or of a city or river, giving its general form or geographical peculiarity.

A delineation of the surface of the earth on paper or other material, in which the lines of latitude and longitude, and the relative positions of countries, kingdoms, states, mountains, rivers, seas etc. are represented.

A delineation of some portion of a sphere, or of the earth, on a plane; a chart.

A delineation of the earth, or part of it.

Represents on a plane greater or smaller parts of the earth’s surface. Astronomy uses similar representations of objects visible in the firmament.

A delineation of the surface of the earth, or any part of it, exhibiting the lines of latitude and the relative positions of countries, mountains, seas, rivers etc.

A delineation of some portion of the surface of the sphere terrestrial or celestial on a plane.

A representation of the surface of a sphere, or a portion of a sphere on a plane. The name however is commonly applied to those plane drawings which represent the form, extent, position and other particulars of the various countries of the earth.

A representation of the whole earth, or of any part of it, on a flat surface.

A rude representation of the school-room, as it would appear to a person looking down from the ceiling or, in other words, a map of the schoolroom.

A showing of the shapes and positions of the features of the earth, not as they rise before the eye in all the beauties of the sun and air, and in their vertical, upright forms, but as they are stretched out horizontally at one’s feet.

A representation in miniature of part of the earth’s surface.

A representation of the surface of the earth or of any part of it, or of the whole or any part of the celestial sphere, usually drawn on paper or other material.  A distinct and precise representation of anything.

A drawing upon a plane surface representing a part or the whole of the earth’s surface or of the heavens, every point of the drawing corresponding to some geographical or celestial position, according to some law, of perspective, etc., which is called the projection, or, better, the map-projection.

A plan or drawing of the whole or part of the earth on a flat surface.

If a person in a balloon passed at a great height over any part of the earth’s surface, and sketched in outline what he saw directly below, his sketch on a flat surface like this page would be called a map.

A napkin. A painted cloth said to be a Punic word. A delineation of some portion of a sphere, or of the earth, on a plane; a chart.

A delineation of a portion of the earth’s surface upn paper or other similar material according to scale, showing the proportionate sizes, shapes and relative positions of places.

A representation of the surface of the earth, or of some portion of it, showing the relative position of the parts represented usually on a flat surface. Also such a representation of the celestial sphere, or of some part of it.

A representation of the earth or part of it.

A flat representation of the earth’s surface.

In one sense a picture expressed in definite and condensed symbols, every one of which is full of meaning.

A map of the simplest kind represents all the points of one surface by corresponding points of another surface in such a manner as to preserve the continuity unbroken, however great may be the distortion.

In a convenient shape, and on a small scale, such a picture of the country represented as will convey a real idea of the actual country as it exists.

A representation of the earth’s surface, or a part of it, its physical and political features, etc., or of the heavens, delineated on a flat surface of paper or other material, each point in the drawing corresponding to a geographical or celestial position according to a definite scale or projection.

A representation of the surface of the earth or any part of it, drawn on paper or other material, exhibiting the lines of latitude and longitude, and the positions of countries, kingdoms, states, mountains, rivers etc..

A delineation on a plane of the whole or of a portion of the surface of the earth.

A representation, as a plane projection, of any region or expanse; a chart; specifically, a delineation of land or land and water, showing the extent and relative position of geographical features and conveying topographical or other information.

Portrayal on a plane of the surface of the earth or some larger or smaller portion of it.

A picture of the earth, or part of it, on a flat surface.

A representation, on a plane and a reduced scale, of part or the whole of the earth’s surface.

Most commonly represents in a conventional manner a portion of the earth’s surface, somewhat as it would be seen by an eye directly above it, but with additions which render it a summary of observations made on the spot.

A delineation of the earth or any part of it.

A picture drawn on a flat piece of paper of a portion of the earth’s surface and giving a similar view of the earth to that presented to an observer in the car of a balloon floating in the air.

A reproduction or picture of some portion of the earth’s surface differing materially from an ordinary picture for two reasons: in a map objects are represented as they would appear if seen from a great height, such as would be obtained by an observer in an aeroplane; everything on a map must either be named or marked with a distinguishing symbol.

Essentially, a representation on paper of a portion of the earth’s surface.

A representation of the whole, or a portion, of the earth’s surface upon a plane.

A representation of a portion of the earth’s surface, or the heavens, on a plane.

A representation, generally on a flat surface, of the face of the earth or a part of it, or the celestial regions.

A delineation on a plane of the surface of the earth or heavens, or a portion thereof.

A plan of a portion of the curved surface of the earth represented on a plane surface.

A pictorial representation of a portion of the earth’s surface laid down on a flat surface.

Simply a model of a portion of the earth’s surface ideal map.

A representation of the whole earth, or of any part of it, on a flat surface.

A representation on a plane surface of a part or the whole of the surface of the earth or of the heavens.

An abstract of the main features of a country, laid before the traveller in advance of his experience of the country itself.

A representation of the whole or part of the earth’s surface drawn on a plane surface.

A representation of the whole or a part of the earth’s surface.

A representation usually on a flat surface of the surface of the earth, or of some portion of it, showing the relative position, according to some given scale and projection, of the parts represented; also such a representation of the celestial sphere, or some part of it.

Plane representation of the earth’s surface or a part of this, indicating physical features, political boundaries etc. Similar representation of heavens, showing position of stars etc.

A delineation on a plane of the surface of the earth or heavens, or a portion thereof.

A representation of the surface of the earth or of any part of it, drawn on paper or other material.

Flat representation of the earth or some part of it, or of the heavens.

A representation on a plane of a part or the whole of the surface of the earth, or the heavens.

A plane representation of a greater or smaller part of the earth’s surface, emphasising, in addition to the positional relations, also space and surface relations, and further geophysical, natural and cultural facts, in such a way that it enables their reading and measurement.

Any delineation of the surface of the earth, or any part of it, drawn on paper or other material.

A representation on a plane surface of a part or the whole of the surface of the earth or of the heavens.

A representation on a plane of a portion of the surface of the earth or the heavens.

Representation on a plane surface of the earth or some part of it.

A representation of the features of one surface on another.

A plan is the shape of any object or group of objects as they would appear if seen from above. Maps are plans on small scales, taking in large areas.

The outcome of man’s desire to give geographical expression to his knowledge or his ideas concerning the characteristics and distribution of the earth’s features.

Representation of the earth or some portion of it on a plane surface.

Representations on a plane surface of some part of the earth.

Plane representation of whole or part of earth’s surface, showing physical features, political boundaries etc..

A representation of a portion of the earth’s surface, or the heavens, upon a plane.

A representation of the surface of the earth or of part of it, on any plane surface; a representation of the celestial sphere.

Flat representation of the earth or some part of it, or of the heavens.

Intended to be a miniature of the country it represents, in so far as a flat surface can imitate one that is actually in relief.

A representation of any region, as the earth’s surface.

Reduced conditional representations of the surface of the whole or parts of earth’s sphere on a plane, obtained by means of a projection and rendering essential features of the geographical characteristic of this surface with all possible fullness and evidence.

A representation of the physical, political, or other features of a geographical area, put down on paper or other flat surfaces according to a definite scale.

A flat representation of the earth’s surface.

Flat representation of the earth or part of it.

Graphic presentation of our knowledge of the earth’s surface and its varied features.

A small-scale, flat-surface representation of some portion of the surface of the earth.

In its primary conception, a conventionalised picture of the earth’s pattern as seen from above, to which lettering is added for identification.

A picture or chart of part of the earth’s surface.

A representation, usually a plane projection, of any region or expanse; a chart; specifically, a delineation of land or land and water, showing the extent and relative position of geographical features, and conveying topographic or other information.

A represenation of spatial phenomena of a certain portion of the earth, projected on a plane; in comparison with a picture it constitutes an abstraction of the reality, represented by means of points, of lines and of superficial markings.

A chart, a flat representation of the earth or a particular region.

A representation in outline of the surface features of the earth, the moon etc., or part of it, usually on a plane surface; a similar plan of the stars in the sky.

A representation on a plane of a part or the whole of the surface of the earth, or the heavens.

Any delineation of the surface of the earth, or of any part of it, drawn on paper or other material.

A flat drawing of the earth’s surface or part of it.

By definition, a representation of all, or a portion of, the earth, drawn to scale and usually on a plane or flat surface.

A graphic document in which location, extent, and direction can be more precisely defined than by the written word.

The purpose of a map is to express graphically the relations of points and features on the earth’s surface to each other.

A complete picture of the countryside it represents, including hills and valleys, railways and roads, rivers and villages, and all the other features of interest.

A representation on a plane surface, at an established scale, of the physical features, natural, artificial or both, of a part or the whole of the earth’s surface, by the use of signs and symbols, and with the method of orientation indicated. Also a similar representation of the heavenly bodies.

Graphic representations of parts of the earth’s surface in miniature, incorporating selected information on a flat surface.

A representation of a portion of the earth’s surface, or the heavens, upon a plane.

A picture of the ground, looked at from above, drawn with painstaking accuracy.

The representation on a flat surface of all or a part of the earth’s surface to show physical, political, or other features, each point on the diagram corresponding to a geographical position according to a definite scale or projection.

A scale drawing of a part of the earth. Pictures of areas of the ground showing its shape, the location and types of roads, railroads, buildings, landmarks, woods, swamps, rivers, lakes and so on; instead of showing the land from the ground level, as you would ordinarily see things, the map gives a view from overhead; maps are picture drawings. They are drawings of the ground and the important things on the ground.

A delineation of the earth’s surface or any part of it.

A one-view drawing showing only the top view.

A flat representation of the earth or some part of it or of the heavens.

A lineal representation on a plane surface of spatial distributions usually on the earth, but sometimes the heavens or a heavenly body. It symbolises sphericity by using projections, distance by using a scale, relief by contours, and employs conventional signs for other features.

A representation of the earth or part of it, or of the heavens.

A representation on a flat surface of all or part of the earth’s surface.

A simplified picture or plan of part of the earth’s surface.

Reduced, generalised, mathematically defined representations of the earth’s surface, showing the distribution, the state and the mutual relations of various natural and social phenomena, chosen and characterised in accordance with the purpose of the map.

Represents the features of a piece of country all to the same scale, correct in their lateral disposition and orientation.

Geographical records and pictures of the way to get from place to place.

A representation of the earth’s surface or a part of it, its physical and political features, etc., or of the heavens, delineated on a flat surface of paper or other material, each point in the drawing corresponding to a geographical or celestial position according to a definite scale or projection.

A flat drawing of the earth or some part of it, showing mountains, rivers, etc.

A representation on a plane surface of the earth’s surface or a portion thereof, or the heavens.

A pilot’s eye view of the ground drawn on paper.

A selective, symbolised, and generalised picture on a much reduced scale of some spatial distribution of a large area, usually the earth’s surface.

A representation of the surface of the earth or any part of it or of the whole or any part of the celestial sphere, usually on paper or other material.

A proportional representation of a particular area of the earth’s surface on a plane, in which certain conventions are used.

A drawing of a large surface. The surface may be of a town, country, the world, the moon or the appearance of the sky.

Representation of the earth’s surface or of the heavens.

The chief difference between a map and a picture is that a map shows the outlines of things as they appear from above.

A conventional representation, normally to scale and usually on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on or in relation to the surface of the earth, or of a heavenly body.

A representation of the earth’s surface on a reduced scale.

A representation usually on a flat medium of all or a portion of the earth or other celestial body, showing the relative size and position of features to some given scale or projection; also, a representation of all or part of the celestial sphere.

The representation of a flat surface of all or part of the earth’s surface, to show physical, political or other features, each point on the diagram corresponding to a geographic position according to a definite scale or projection.

A graphic is a geographic map when the elements of a geographic component are arranged on a plane in the manner of their observed geographic order on the surface of the earth.

A portable, simplified picture of the world or some portion of it.

A topographic transfer, relative to a given part of the earth surface, is a set of signs informing about spatial relations conditions occurring between objects or phenomena connected with the said part of the earth surface. The map of a given part of the earth surface is a topographic transmitter that informs only and solely by means of a disposition on the plane of signs designating objects or phenomena.

A symbolised picture of an area or piece of ground, drawn as accurately as possible, as it would be seen from directly above.

The primary function of a map is to serve as a reduction of all or part of the earth’s surface for the purpose of recording, presenting, or analysing the spatial positions and the interrelationships of phenomena occurring thereon.

A graphic representation, usually on a plane surface and at an established scale, of natural and artificial features on the surface of a part or the whole of the earth or other planetary body. The features are positioned as accurately as possible, usually relative to a coordinate reference system. Also, a graphic representation of a part or the whole of the celestial sphere.

An abstract, abbreviated representation of a part or whole of an area, usually the earth’s surface.

A representation, usually on a plane surface, of a region of the earth or heavens.

Conventionalised representation of spatial phenomena on a plane surface. Unlike photographs maps are selective and may be prepared to show various quantitative and qualititative facts, including boundaries, physical features, patterns, and distribution. Each part of a map corresponds to a geographical position in accordance with a definite scale and projection.

Representation on a plane surface at an established scale of the physical features, natural or artificial, of a part or whole of the earth by means of symbols with the method of orientation, such as north, indicated.

Some form of ‘macroscope’ with a reducing power to scale down extensive regions to a convenient size for visual examination. The first technique in this class of graphic aids is the field sketch or landscape drawing which is completely bound by the horizon and the laws of perspective. The second technique breaks the horizon bondage by adopting a higher viewpoint thus condensing more extensive areas into panoramas or block diagrams. Third, the perspective bond is further broken by the rise of still more distant and imaginary viewpoints arranged in a systematic lattice to give vertical views of all points simultaneously. This produces the map.

An approximate iconic representation, scaled small, of an existent physical thing, all or a portion of the earth’s surface.

A graphic representation or charting of the whole or part of the earth’s surface, the heavens, or one of the heavenly bodies; anything which resembles a map in appearance or function.

A representation to scale of the features of the surface of the earth.

A kind of picture, showing certain geographical aspects of a town, a continent, the oceans, or even the surface of the moon.

A representation of all or part of the earth, drawn to scale, usually on a plane surface.

A representation on a plane surface paper, card, plastic, cloth or some other material of the features of part of the earth’s surface, drawn to some specific scale. It obviously involves certain degrees of generalisation, selective emphasis and conventionalisation, according to the scale and the detail involved.

A representation, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on, or in relation to, the surface of the earth or of a celestial body.

A graphic representation of a planetary surface.

A representation, usually on a plane surface, of all or part of the surface of the earth, celestial sphere, or other area; shows relative size and position according to a given projection, of the physical features represented and such other information as may be applicable to the purpose intended.

Representation usually on a flat surface of the whole or a part of an area; a representation of the celestial sphere or part of it. 2. Something that represents with a clarity suggestive of a map.

Representation on paper etc. of the earth’s surface or part of it, showing physical and political features.

Two-dimensional representation of a landscape.

A drawing of part of the earth’s surface on a small scale.

A representation of the milieu. The space represented by a tangible map normally refers to the three-dimensional field of our experience. The most general terms are probably ‘place and area’ — simply a portion of space. They are quite impersonal, though, and because of the involvement of the cartographer in a map, they leave something to be desired; the word ‘milieu’ best connotes one’s surroundings or environment in addition to its meaning of place, and thus involves the cartographer. A map is a graphic thing made of marks of various kinds.

Traditionally, a map is a space in which marks that have been assigned meanings are placed in positions relative to one another in such a way that not only the marks, but also the positions and the spatial relationships among the elements, have meaning.

A drawing of an area as you would see it from high up above.

A graphic representation on a plane surface of the earth’s surface or part of it, showing its geographical features. These are positioned according to pre-established geodetic control, grids, projections, and scales.

A map is the simplest and most elegant and informative way of presenting data that vary across a surface. It is a two-dimensional model which the human mind recognises and comprehends with pictorial clarity but yet provides quantitative as well as qualititative information.

A symbolised picture of the earth pattern drawn to scale on a horizontal projection, to which lettering usually is added for identification.

A geographical map is a representation of the arrangement of elements on the surface of the earth.

Maps are scales for measuring the property location.

A presentational form of communication. No map marks are carriers of fixed meanings. The marks have location. The marks are opaque rather than transparent. The map has the quality of image and the quality of structure.

A representation of part of the earth’s surface as if seen from above, showing the shape of countries, the position of towns, the height of land, the rivers etc.

A graphic representation, usually on a plane surface and at an established scale, of natural and artificial features on the surface of a part or the whole of the earth or other planetary body; the features are positioned as accurately as possible, usually relative to a coordinate reference system.

Any geographical image of the environment. A cartographer’s map is an external geographical representation of the geographical environment.

A loose definition of the concept of mapping experience, and mapping behaviour, is that it is one of several modes of communication practised by human beings, specifically that concerned with selectively sensed data about objects and events in their spatial-temporal context; the storage and manipulation of such data as cognitive maps and only potentially as documents, and the thoughts, movements, and other behaviour consequent upon the sensing, sorting, arrangement and symbolic transformation of such data.

Diagram representing the lay out of features on the earth’s surface or part of it.

Graphic representation of the physical features, natural, artificial, or both of a part or the whole of the earth’s surface, by means of signs or symbols or photographic imagery, at an established scale, on a specified projection and with the means of orientation indicated.

A spatial representation that is dimensionally systematic in that there is a definable mathematical relationship among the objects shown usually made on a flat surface and that can show only a selection of geographical phenomena that have been somehow generalised, simplified, classified etc..

A diagrammatic representation of the earth’s surface or part of it, showing the geographical distributions, positions, etc., of natural or artificial features such as roads, towns, relief, rainfall, etc.

A representation, especially on a plane surface, of the surface of the earth, or part of it.

A drawn representation of geographical space.

A representation on flat surface of all or part of earth’s surface; similar representation of relative position of stars as seen from earth, or of the surface of other planets.

A flat representation of the earth or some part of it or of the heavens.

Some relatively durable physical object that represents spatial relationships among various phenomena.

A representation of the earth or some part of it on a plane surface.

Formal systems for the communication of spatial information.

Flat representation of the earth, or some part of it, or of the heavens.

A representation, usually on a plane surface, of the earth’s surface or a part of it or of the sky showing the positions of the stars etc.

A representation usually on a plane surface of the earth’s surface or a part of it or of the sky showing the positions of the stars etc..

A picture, diagram or analogue, usually having two dimensions, of part or all of the surface of the earth or other mappable area and a device for transferring selected information about the mapped area to the map user.

Achieves the visually impossible feat of vertical representation at every point, to a uniform scale throughout the map instead of reproducing the actual shape, colour and texture of the features it shows, replaces them with a set of more or less elaborate signs and symbols.

To see such productions as the Pawnee Indian star chart as somehow connected with the history of mapping merely distracts attention from the real issue in early cartography: how and when did mankind reach the highly sophisticated idea of representing landscape as though viewed vertically from every point?

The map image is a structured cartographic representation of selected spatial information, which when placed onto a storage medium becomes a map.

The map image is a structured representation of selected spatial information, which when placed on a storage medium becomes a map.

A drawing or other representation that is usually made on a flat surface and that shows the whole or a part of an area as of the surface of the earth or some other planet or of the moon and indicates the nature and relative position and size according to a chosen scale or projection of selected features or details as countries, cities, bodies of water, mountains, deserts.

Briefly, a form of graphic communication designed to convey information about the environment.

A symbolic graphic representation of a planetary body, or portion thereof.

A representation, on a flat surface, of a part or the whole of the earth’s surface, the heavens, or a heavenly body.

A spatial analogue: its purpose is the understanding, portrayal, and communication of information that varies in space.

Symbolic representations of the real world.

A graphic portrayal of the whole or part of the earth.

A representation in outline of the surface features of the earth, the moon, etc., or of part of it, usually on a plane surface: a similar plan of the stars in the sky: a representation, scheme, or epitome of the disposition or state of anything.

A graphic means of communicating useful information.

A drawing of the earth’s surface or of part of it, usually showing countries, cities, rivers, seas, lakes and mountains.

Graphic representation of spatial relationships and spatial forms.

The graphic representation of all or a portion of the earth’s surface or other celestial body, by means of signs and symbols or photographic imagery, at some given scale or projection.

A graphic representation of the geographic features of the earth’s surface on a plane surface.

A device for storing and communicating information about the physical and social phenomena that are distributed over the earth’s surface.

The domain of cartography is to be limited by the planimetrically correct representation of the two spatial dimensions retaining the various symbolism on that plane for the displaying of a third dimension.

Any graphic, conventional representation of spatial information, drawn for a purpose.

A representation usually on a plane surface of the earth’s surface or a part of it, or of the sky showing the position of the stars etc.

A representation of the earth’s surface or a part of it, or of the heavens, delineated on a flat sheet of paper or other material.

A two-dimensional representation of a geographical area.

A ‘symbolic description’ using an array of symbols to yield a true or false characterisation of a certain aspect of the world. To be a map, the conventions of representation used by the map maker must be known to the map reader.

Efforts to convey, on a flat surface, the representation of space and what, in that space, is particularly meaningful.

A representation on a flat surface usually of paper of the features of part of the earth’s surface, drawn at a specific scale.

A representation on a flat surface of part of the earth’s surface, the celestial sphere etc.

Drawing or representation on paper etc. of the earth’s surface or part of it, showing countries, oceans, rivers, mountains etc.; representation of the sky showing positions of the stars etc.

A means of representing the spatial arrangements of objects, conditions, processes, and events in the terrestrial, celestial or imagined worlds by means of a wide range of techniques on or with a great variety of materials for any number of reasons and structured according to any of several geometries.

A representation usually on plane surface, cf globe of part of earth’s surface, showing physical and political features etc., or of the heavens, showing positions of stars etc.

A representation, usually on a plane surface, of a region of the earth showing geographical, political, or other features

A drawing of the earth’s surface or part of it, often showing things such as rivers, mountains, countries, towns.

Representation on paper etc. of earth’s surface, or part of it, showing physical and political features etc.; similar represention of heavens showing position of stars etc.

The task of the cartographer is to represent the topographical natural and artificial features of the earth’s surface at a greatly reduced scale in a convenient form, usually on flat sheets of paper.

As we know them today, maps combine geographical outlines and features with toponymy.  Modern definitions of a map, referring as they do to scale, projection, coordinates or clearly indicated methods of orientation, are anachronistic for our period. We therefore propose instead the following minimum requirements for an incunable map: It must attempt to convey, in graphic form, information about the real world or some part of it. It must be concerned — however inaccurately or schematically — with direction and the relative distance of one place or feature from others.

Graphic representations that facilitate a spatial understanding of things, concepts, conditions, processes, or events in the human world.

Permanent graphic images epitomising the spatial distribution of objects and events.

A drawing or other representation, usually on a flat surface, of all or part of the earth’s surface, ordinarily showing countries, bodies of water, cities, mountains etc. A similar representation of part of the sky, showing the relative positions of the stars, planets etc.

As a scale model, the map projects a spherical surface onto a plane and represents real features with graphic symbols.

Holistic representations of spatial reality. The map is initially and primarily an intellectual abstraction of spatial reality but this must be subsequently communicated, i.e. modelled and coded, in a form that exploits the human and/or digital spatial processing capablities.

A holistic representation and intellectual abstraction of geographic reality intended to be communicated for a purpose or purposes, transforming relevant geographical data into an end-product which is visual, digital or tactile.

Representation in outline form of the surface features of the earth or of the distribution of some phenomenon upon it.

A representation on paper, etc. of the earth’s surface or part of it, showing countries, rivers, mountains, oceans, roads, etc.

A two-dimensional graphic image which shows the location of things in space, that is, in relationship to the earth’s surface. It is distinguished from other kinds of representation in two dimensions — such as pictorial images and diagrams — in two principal ways. First, its perspective is an orthogonal projection of the earth’s three dimensional surface on to a plane. And second, it does not describe or depict individual things, but represents them by signs which place them in classes or categories. In addition, because the earth is nearly spherical, any map of more than a very small area must involve some distortion, and therefore employ some systematic means of representing the spheroidal or spherical surface, on a plane.  Those maps which do not show any graticule or grid are still based on sources of information derived from maps on a coordinate system.

Maps structure information graphically, in two dimensions.

A graphic representation of the milieu, containing both pictorial or iconic and non-pictorial elements.

A representation of the surface of the earth or any part of it.

A systematic representation of all or part of the earth on a flat surface plane.

A graphic representation of the milieu.

A representation of a portion of the earth’s surface or the heavens, upon a plane.

A representation of the surface of the earth or any part of it.

A drawing of the earth’s surface or part of it, often showing things such as rivers, mountains, countries and towns.

A graphic representation of all or part of the earth’s surface; sometimes this definition may be much more restrictive, taking in such elements as scale and orientation.

A mirror, a graphic representation, of some aspect of the real world ‘the usual perception of the nature of maps’.

A visual representation of a part or all of the surface of the earth.

Is intended to represent the spatial relationship between locations on the globe in more or less schematic form.

Representations of features on the earth’s surface drawn to scale.

The flat representation of part of the earth’s surface, showing physical and political features.

An abstraction of reality used for analysing, storing and communicating information about the locations, attributes and interrelationships of physical and social phenomena that are distributed over the earth’s surface.

A bird’s eye view of a portion of the earth’s surface.

A representation or abstraction of geographical reality and a tool for presenting geographical information in a way that is visual, digital or tactile.

A communication tool that transmits information on a spatial themes with cartographic signs, whose arrangements, according to scale and projection of the representation base, correspond with the spatial structure of the represented objects of reality.

A representation or abstraction of geographical reality: a tool for presenting geographical information in a way that is visual, digital or tactile.

A holistic representation and intellectual abstraction of geographic reality intended to be communicated for a purpose or purposes, transferring relevant geograhical data into an end product which is visual, digital, or tactile.

A medium for the comprehension, recording and communication of spatial relationships and forms; these are often, but not always, of geographical phenomena.

A generalised picture of the surface of the earth or other celestial body viewed vertically from above and at a much reduced scale.

A representation on a flat surface of all or part of the earth’s surface or all or part of the stars.

A drawing of an area as it would appear if you saw it from above. A map shows the main features of an area and sometimes has special information on it.

The representation of part of the earth’s surface as seen from above, showing the shape of countries , the position of towns, the height of land, the rivers, etc.

A spatial representation of the environment. By ‘representation’ we mean something that stands for the environment, that portrays it, that is both a likeness and a simplified model.

An image proclaiming its objective neutrality.

Flat drawings of the world seen from above.

A report of a survey in the form of a drawing.

A plan drawn accurately to a defined scale.

A representation of the surface of the earth or any part of it.

A representation of the earth’s surface, or part of it, showing its physical or human features delineated on a flat surface of paper or other materials according to some set of rules.

A symbolised image of geographic reality, representing selected features or characteristics, resulting from the creative efforts of cartographers, and designed for use when spatial relationships are of special relevance.

A conventionalised image of geographical reality, representing selected features or characteristics, resulting from the creative effort of its author’s execution of choices, and thus designed for use when spatial relationships are of primary relevance.

A system capable of representing, perhaps after operations defined within the system, the direction and distance between any two arbitrary represented places.

A drawing or plan, in outline, of any part of the surface of the earth, various features are shown usually roads, rivers, seas, towns etc. a similar type of drawing showing e.g. the surface of the moon, the position of the stars in the sky etc.

A map represents the world, or portions of it, as a set of features divided into a small number of recurring types rivers, towns, national borders, etc., each indicated by a conventional symbol that are related to one another by contiguity and distance.

A map is a category 1 object representing category 4 geographic space. Category 1 = small manipulable objects (e.g. a book). Category 4 = spaces which cannot be perceived as units such as extended geographic space.

The map image is a structured cartographic representation of selected spatial information. The image becomes a map when represented physically (e.g. classical topographic map, or braille), virtually (e.g. on a computer screen or linguistically (e.g. verbal or written spatial instructions).

A representation of the surface of the earth or any part of it.

Relatively durable graphic expressions mimicking, at every point, a schematised view more or less from overhead.

A dissociated transcript of a public image of space and spatial relationships.

Graphic representations of social space.

A graphic image that can be interpreted geographically.

A matrix of ambiguous culturally defined symbols.

A graphical representation usually on a flat surface of objects and phenomena in their spatial relationships on the surface of the earth or any other celestial body.

A graphic image that can be interpreted spatially.

A representation of spatial relations.

Two- or three-dimensional devices, allowing to give a spatial organization to phenomena, events, processes, things, etc in order to understand them.

A tool which helps us order or navigate some aspect of the outside world.

A drawing that shows where various things are located in relation to one another.

This graphic representation of the geographical setting is what we call a map.

A representation of the earth, or part of it.

A representation, usually on a plane surface, of all or part of the earth or some other body showing a group of features in terms of their relative size and position.

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Holy crap!

What to do when one of the few iconic prehistoric maps isn’t a map?

The 6200 BC “map” of Çatalhöyük in Turkey, complete with erupting “volcano” in the background, prefaces many discussions of maps and mapping.  It is used to situate contemporary mapping as part of a long trajectory – “humans have always made maps.”

Alas, an important characteristic of any prehistoric “map” is that we can only speculate as to the intent of the creator. Yes we can look at some squiggly lines and say “hey, that looks like a map” but, of course, that depends on a modern sense of what a map is.  And, possibly, a tendency for us to see maps where there are none.

Indeed, many prehistoric “maps” may be the result of cartocacoethes – a mania, uncontrollable urge, compulsion or itch to see maps everywhere. Map simulacra like chipped paint: a stone China: a mud puddle Australia: and “geographic tongue:” - a medical condition that “looks like a map.”

See also the many prehistoric squiggles (below left) illustrated in Catherine Delano Smith’s “Cartography in the Prehistoric Period in the Old World” in Brian Harley and David Woodward’s The History of Cartography, Volume One (Chicago, 1987, pp. 54-101).

Part of me really wants these marks chipped in stone to be maps. But there does not seem to be much, if any, evidence that they are.

Why do we want mapping to stretch back into prehistory?  If maps didn’t exist in prehistory, and were scarce prior to 1500, does that somehow undermine the importance of contemporary maps and mapping? What drives this cartocacoethes?

The Çatalhöyük “map” provides a great case study of the perils of prehistoric map hunting.

The Çatalhöyük map was first brought to attention in a 1964 article entitled “Excavations at Çatal Hüyük, 1963, Third Preliminary Report” by James Mellaart (Anatolian Studies 14 (1964, pp. 39-119).

A map of the excavations (right) shows the area allegedly represented on the “map.”

Mellaart’s 1967 book Çatal Hüyük: A Neolithic Town in Anatolia claimed that the Neolithic Anatolians at Çatalhöyük created the World’s first map, and fame for the map followed.

“The oldest town plan in existence” says Jeremy Harwood in To the Ends of the Earth: 100 Maps that Changed the World. “The oldest authenticated map in the world” says J.B. Harley in the UNESCO Courier. Of maps, it is, says Catherine Delano Smith in Imago Mundi, “the oldest known.”  “The Catal Huyuk map … is perhaps 2000 years older than the oldest known writing system and 4000 or more years older than the oldest known alphabetical writing system…” says James Blaut in Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. Heck, I even towed the party line in my introductory maps course lecture on the history of mapping.

Whoa, folks.

Archaeologist Stephanie Meece recently published an article in Anatolian Studies questioning the Çatalhöyük map’s status as a map.  The original “map” wall painting is shown below, in a photo from Mellaart’s 1964 article.  Most people have only seen the redrawing of the “map” with “volcano” (above) – not the original image.

In her article “A Bird’s Eye View – Of A Leopard’s Spots: The Çatalhöyük ‘Map’ and the Development of Cartographic Representation in Prehistory” (Anatolian Studies 56, 2006, pp. 1-16; full text here) Meece interrogates the claim that the particular wall painting found at Çatalhöyük is a map with erupting volcano in the background.  Meece writes (in an email exchange):

…one of the take-home messages of the article was to go beyond the tendency to identify the images in isolation, based on a personal recognition of similarity. I wanted to emphasise the need to understand the paintings in their contexts, as part of a generations-old, well developed cultural tradition; taking one image out of its context and pointing out its superficial resemblance to something else is a bane of archaeologists, and leads to von Daniken and his spaceships.

The “volcano” in the wall painting (below top; redrawing, bottom left) was originally interpreted by Mellaart as a leopard-skin costume, similar to other leopard skin images found at Çatalhöyük (bottom right). Meece writes:

In several later paintings, notably the large so-called hunting scenes, human figures are depicted wearing stiff ‘skirts’ and head coverings that are painted with simple dots. The skirts are conventionally depicted as two wide triangles connected at their base, with two sharp points.  They are twice as long as they are wide, and are filled in with dark-coloured dots, similar to the appearance of a stretched, prepared leopard skin.

The lower part of the wall painting, the “map,” does resemble the general layout of houses at Çatalhöyük, with storerooms surrounding a central room.  Nevertheless, claims Meece,

These geometric designs below the leopard skin are better understood as part of the very common (though their abundance is under-represented in the published discussions of the paintings at the site) tradition of painted panels, placed along the lower registers of house walls.  The ‘map’ pattern is entirely consistent with the standard range of motifs used in other buildings: a cell-like structure, repeated in horizontal lines, often with borders or frames enclosing each cell.



Meece examines an impressive array of evidence surrounding the painting and concludes

… looking closely at the wall painting, and situating it within the corpus of art objects at Çatalhöyük, it is clear that the original interpretation is much more likely to be the correct one.  The painting is unlikely to be a map of Çatalhöyük, but rather depicts a leopard skin in the upper register, and the lower section is one of the very typical geometric patterns commonly found at the site.

Oh well.

In a forthcoming article entitled “Maps” Denis Wood and I argue

… if prehistoric humans did make maps – which is doubtful – they were neither made often nor in very many places; they likely served broadly pictorial, religious, ritual, symbolic, and/or magical functions; and their production was discontinuous with the practice of mapmaking encountered in historic populations.

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Official sites of execution – prisons, military bases, etc. – are found in parts of the semi-civilized world where capital punishment is still practiced (shown in red on the map below).

Alas, these sites where we kill people so people stop killing people (and other assorted reasons) are not typically symbolized on modern maps. I guess this is one of the ways we Lie With Maps.

A nice summary of capital punishment around the world can be found at Wikipedia.  For those of you keeping score at home, Capital Punishment UK keeps a tidy list of the most recent executions around the world. For last month (September ’08), it looks like the US is in first place.  Go USA!

There are many ways to execute people, including burning, boiling to death, breaking wheel, burial, crucifixion, crushing, decapitation, dehydration, devouring by animals, disembowelment, dismemberment, drawing and quartering, drowning, electrocution, explosives, flaying, garrote, gassing, guillotine, hanging, impalement, lethal injection, marooning, nitrogen asphyxiation, poisoning, pendulum blade, sawing, scaphism, shooting, slow slicing, snake pit, stabbing, starvation, stoning, thrown from a height, tearing apart by horses, and venomous stings.

There don’t seem to be map symbols for many of these methods, but there are a few historical examples hanging around out there, mostly for gibbets and gallows.

Francois de Dainville, in his Le Language des Geographes (1964, pp. 301-302) compiled map symbols from historical European maps (1550-1771) showing different ways to symbolize gibbets and gallows and other curious structures for execution by hanging. The text below the symbols (in the graphic at the top of this post) indicates the historical maps the symbols were taken from.

The 1795 edition of a New Map of Hampshire by John Lodge includes a small gallows symbol:

John Rocque’s map of London, Westminster and Southwark (1746) includes a symbol for the Tyburn gallows and the location “Where Soldiers are Shot”:

Valerie Kivelson illustrated an execution map symbol in her book The Cartographies of Tsardom (2006).

In this case the map is Russian, from the 17th century, by the Russian cartographer Semen Remezov.  The historical context is Russian Imperial expansion into Siberia in earlier centuries.

Kivelson writes

In his History Remezov approvingly describes how one of Ermak’s lieutenants pacified the natives of the Nazym District by attacking settlements, capturing their strongest men, hanging them from gallows by one leg, and then shooting them.  The scene is illustrated in the History and captured Remezov’s imagination so much that he inscribed the tiny image of a man hanging by one leg in several of his maps, literally mapping the violence of imperial conquest onto the landscape.

Remezov illustrated the scene in his Kratkaia Sibirskaia Letopis:

Have a nice day!

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Drawing maps used to be a big part of the geography curriculum in the U.S. One guide for students, published in 1900, is Schutze’s Amusing Geography and System of Map Drawing by Lenore Schutze.  Tips for Africa, “The Skull” as Schutze sees it:

1. Cut a square into four smaller squares, and erase the southwest one.

2. Mark the cross-line from east to west, “The Equator.”

3. Draw Tripoli at the north of the division line from north to south, and Cape Town at the south end.

4. Locate the mouths of the Nile River west of the middle of the north side of the second square, and draw from them to a point north of the Equator, on the east side, and print “Cape Guardafui.”  Draw the Red Sea south of this line.

5. Draw from Cape Guardafuit to Cape Town, and print “Cape of Good Hope.”  Zanzibar, Pretoria, and Pietermaritzburg must be south of this line.

6. The west side of Africa extends somewhat above the north side of the first square, and does not quite reach the Equator.

7. Madagascar slants in about the same direction as the line from Cape Guardafui to Cape Town.

The entire page on Africa from Schutze’s Amusing Geography and System of Map Drawing (1900) p. 43 is below:

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Erwin Raisz is among the most creative cartographers of the 20th century, known in particular for his maps of landforms.

In 1931 Raisz outlined and illustrated the methods behind his landform maps, in an article in the Geographical Review (Vol. 21, No. 2, April 1931). Excerpts from the text and graphics in the article are included below.

Raisz’s approach is to create complex pictorial map symbols for specific landform types. Each specific application, of course, would have to modify the symbols to fit the configuration of particular landforms.

One of the limitations of Raisz’s work is that it is so personal and idiosyncratic that it virtually defies automation or application in the realm of computer mapping. Thus digital cartography has, in some cases, limited the kind of maps we can produce.

Raisz writes:

There is one problem in cartography which has not yet been solved: the depiction of the scenery of large areas on small-scale maps.

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Most of our school maps show contour lines with or without color tints. Excellent as this method is on detailed topographic sheets … it fails when it has to be generalized for a small-scale map of a large area. Nor does the other common method, hachuring, serve better.

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For the study of settlement, land utilization, or any other aspect of man’s occupation of the earth it is more important to have information about the ruggedness, trend, and character of mountains, ridges, plains, plateaus, canyons, and so on-in a word, the physiography of the region.

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Our purpose here is to describe and define more closely a method already, in use, what we may call the physiographic method of showing scenery. This method is an outgrowth of the block diagram. [T]he method was fully developed by William Morris Davis. Professor Davis has used block diagrams more to illustrate physiographic principles than to represent actual scenery.

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Professor A. K. Lobeck’s Physiographic Diagram of the United States and the one of Europe do away entirely with the block form, and the physiographic symbols are systematically applied to the vertical map. His book Block Diagrams is the most extended treatise on the subject.

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It is probable that the mathematically-minded cartographer will abhor this method. It goes back to the primitive conceptions of the early maps, showing mountains obliquely on a map where everything should be seen vertically. We cannot measure off elevation or the angle of slope. Nevertheless, this method is based on as firm a scientific principle as a contour or hachure map: the underlying science is not mathematics but physiography.

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If we regard the physiographic map as a systematic application of a set of symbols instead of a bird’s-eye view of a region, we do not violate cartographic principles even though the symbols are derived from oblique views instead of vertical views. It may be observed that our present swamp symbols are derived from a side view of water plants.

••••••

Landform map symbols include: plains (sand & gravel, semiarid, grassland, savannah, forest, needle forest, forest swamp, swamp, tidal marsh, cultivated land), coastal plain, flood plain, alluvial fans, conoplain, cuesta land, plateau (subdued, young, dissected), folded mountains, dome mountains, block mountains, complex mountains (high, glaciated, medium, low, rejuvenated), peneplane, lava plateau (young, dissected), volcanoes, limestone region (with sinkholes, dissected, karst, tropical, mogotes), coral reefs, sand dunes, desert of gravel (serir), deflated stone surfaces (hamada), clay (takyr), loess region, glacial moraine, kames, drumlin region, fjords, glaciers, shoreline (sand, gravel, cliffed), and elevated shorelines & terraces.

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From the New York Times, August 2, 1892:

American Maps Are Bad

“It is doubtful,” says Mr. Jacques W. Redway, in an article on the projection of maps in the Proceedings of the Engineering Club of this city. “if anything short of a special act of Providence could give birth to a more beastly specimen of cartography than the average American wall-map designed for educational purposes.” We regret to say that this is strictly true. Our Federal Coast and Geological Survey maps are of the highest artistic and scientific merit, as Mr. Redway says. The topographical survey of New-Jersey, as issued by the New-Jersey Geological Survey, gives maps which deserve the enthusiasm of all who see them, and they are published by the State without profit at a cost rivaling that of any maps issued. But the ordinary wall-map and the atlas ordinarily accessible to people of limited means in this country are the worst in the world, barring some maps in China or Turkey. As for Japan, the country as a whole is better mapped than our own. There is nothing accessible in this country like the cheap German maps.

Thank God for the bad maps of China and Turkey.

Original article:

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Wells

Springs

Successful, Unsuccessful

Nonmineral, Mineral

Nonmineral, Mineral, Artesian, Gravity, Artesian, Gravity

Rise, No Rise, Rise, No rise, Cold, Warm, Cold, Cold, Warm, Cold

Flowing, Nonflowing, Flowing, Nonflowing

Those are all the wells and springs…

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In general there has been no attempt at uniformity of practice in the delineation on maps of underground water features or of wells or springs… …it now appears desirable that a concerted movement be made to develop a uniform system of symbols for use on maps.

The number of symbols devised should be sufficient for the representation of all features which it is desirable to show. If wholly arbitrary devices are used, confusion will result whenever a considerable number are used simultaneously, but this difficulty will be largely avoided if the system adopted is based on a few suggestive forms grouped according to easily remembered principles.

The principles to be considered in devising a system of well and spring symbols for underground water maps are (1) simplicity, (2) clearness, (3) ease of making, and (4) suggestiveness. Failure to answer these various requirements ruled out many of the arbitrary systems used in the past…

It is believed that a system of symbols can be most logically developed if a single arbitrary device is taken as a base. In common practice a circle is most often used for a well, while more or less closely allied devices are used for springs. Inasmuch as both wells and springs are ordinarily approximately circular, this device, which seems to have both the required simplicity and suggestiveness, is proposed.

Words of map symbolization wisdom from “Representation of Wells and Springs on Maps” by Myron Fuller in Water-Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 160, U.S. Geological Survey (1906).

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